Year TIMELINE CONTENT B.C.-1600 1600-1800 1800-1890 1890-1945 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 correction
Generaions aka Eras manual, mechanical, electro-mech, vacuum tube, transistor (60s foundation era), ICs leading to the micro, WWW, In your pocket: small form factor devices, Pre-computer Pre-Computer: Manual Pre-computer: Mechanical & Electric. Pre-computer: Electro-mechanical Pre-computer Electronic: Vacuum tube                           1st Gen: Vac. Tube               2nd  Gen: Transistors   Mainframe Era. Snowhite & 7 dwarfs: Burroughs, CDC, GE, Honeywell, NCR, RCA, UNIVAC > BUNCH.       Minicomputer class Ausiin Mini, mini-skirt, etc. 3rd Gen: SSI, MSI. 100tr/chip 100 minicomputer companies form   Four Phase: First MicroP.   4th Gen: uP, LSI. 4Ktr/chip               VLSI   68Ktr/chip     100s of PC companies form with WinTel arch.       275 Kt/chip     1.6 Mt/chip       The Web Arrives   WWW Era - Mobile Computing 1000s of web services form       SmartPhone           1 TB/disk                 497
Epoch Inventions 1250 BC: Ten commandments, first rule based program. Paper. Printing. Mxwell's Equations (1860). Bell: telephone message (1874). Cards computing. Vacuum tube (1906). Fiip-flop (1919) Computation done electronically EDVAC First Draft of a Report: the stored program computer recipe! ENIAC proof. Bell Labs: Transistor. Williams Tube storage @ Manchester U. First program: Kilburn, Manchester. Leo & UNIVAC I, delay lines; UNIVAC Mag. Tape replaces cards. Core Memory on MTC at MIT. IBM 726 tape unit. Texas Instrucments: Si transistor for $2.50. BTL: Tradic 800 transistor computer. IBM 305 5 Mbyyte Disk (RAMAC) FORTRAN used. Kilby: IC patent w/wires. Noyce: IC patent planar process. Fairchild (Hoerni) planar transistor. U Manchester: One level store. COBOL, LISP. Fairchild RTL IC. MIT CTSS.  Sketchpad IBM 360 Announce 4/7. CDC 6600 (begin Cray era) Moore's Law posited. Cooley Tukey algorithm. Monolithic Mem chip. Fairchild 8-bit ALU. UNIX @ BTL. IBM: E F Codd Relational Database TR. Four Phase Microprocessor. Intel 4004 chip uP. IBM: 8" Floppy. Email. Intel 8008. Echert Mauchly patent invalidated. Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet. MITS Altair Kit. MOS Tech: 6502, 1st PCs. Intel 8080 & Zilog Z80. Cray 1 Vector architecture for 2 decades First personally affordable  computers. C  Language Manual 1st Edition. Visicalc (spreasheet) for Apple II. CD. MS DOS. IBM: PC defines Wintel std. DEC-Intel-Xerox: Ethernet std (802.11). Microsoft: Word. Caltech: Cosmic Cube,  1st Scalable. Apple MacIntosh CERN establishes HTML. Amd URL. WWW Windows 3.1. Mosaic Browser Archive.org founded to archive www iPod: Media Player class. Wireless sensor networks class:  Internet of Things.   Amazon Elastic Cloud, EC2 iPhone: Smartphone class. iPad: tablet class. IBM Watson wins Jeprody. 46
Control:  Programs and architecture Algorithms, languages, recipes, instructions, etc. pre computing, and architecture 3-5 lines: algorithms, architectures, languages, and some operating systems  Water clock (283).  Clock (1300).  Ten Commandments (rule based system).  Boole: The Mathematical Analyis of Logic (1847). Babbage: starts Diff Engine (1822). Babbage: Analytical Engine (1833). Scheutz Difference Engine (1853). Shannon Thesis: Boolean Algebra for Switching Circuits. Zuse Z3 tape programed.  Mark I tape program EDVAC Draft report 6/30. Zuse Plankalkul (Plan Calculus),  ENIAC vacuum tubes, patchcord program. IAS Paper: Burks…von Neumann. IAS paper. Big Bang. Manchester "Baby" 16 words Williams Tube 6/21 op.  Shannon: Chess paper & Mouse. EDSAC team wrote 1st programming book Hopper: A-O compiler using english sysntax. Backus FORTRAN start Simon et al: Logic Theorist. FORTRAN II for 704 Samuel Chess program. Algol 60 Spec. COBOL. LISP.  SNOBOL. MIT CTSS tmesharing demo. Atlas: One level store. IBM (Iverson): A Programming Language.  APL.  OS 360 announce. Simula introduces objects.  Dijkstra: "Goto harmful". Unics=>Unix. Smalltalk-71 (PARC). C  Language MIT LISP Machines. Berkeley 1BSD. IBM Research 801 first RISC. Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989. Patterson et al: "A Case for the reduced instruction-set computer." Lotus 1-2-3. Matlab introduction. GNU (Stallman). Bjarne Stroustrup: C++ Apple Hypercard Wolfram Mathematica. Simcity. Linux Introdued using GNU). Java 1.1 C.Plastic. C.mxmxm. 5 43
Computers for Control including Minicomputers & chips! Minicomputers, microprocessors, microcomputers, wireless sensor nets, etc. used for controlling other systesm 2 or 3 Lines: micros, minis, process control, embedded  Antikythera Calc. Jacquard Loom (1801-06) Norden Bombsight (?). IBM SSEC (relays & tubes). MIT Whirlwind: core memory; Mem. Test Computer (MTC) 1st use. MIT (Lincoln Lab) SAGE (semi-auto ground environment) for air defense Computer typesetting. DEC: PDP-5 (mini forerruner). SDS: 910, 920, 930. DEC: PDP-8. Computer Controls: DDP 116, 16-bit mini.  Apollo Guidance Computer: IC. Honeywell DDP 516: IC mini. HP 2115. Medtronic pacemaker w/ICs. DEC: PDP-8/I IC computer. DG Nova (one board). Apollo Guidance Computer. Four Phase Systems microprocessor based data entry computer. DEC PDP-11/20. Intel 4004 chip uP. Application control of calculator Intel: 8080. Zilog: Z-80. Interdata: 32-bit mini. ARM Chip. DEC: VT 78  PDP-8 word process.   Intel: 8086.  Motorola 68,000, 68Ktransistors enable workstations.Intel 8088 29 Ktrans. IBM 801 RISC. PARC: Snalltalk-80 released. Intel 286 MIPS: RISC processor. Encrore Multimax "multi" (shared memory mulitprocessor). BTL: Optical transistor.Intel: 386. Sun SPARC (RISC) gate array. Motorola: 68030.  Intel 486 1.6 Mtrans.  Motorola: 68040 1.2 Mtrans. IBM PowerPC. SUN Viking (SuperSPARC) chip. Intel: Pentium Pister: WSN Proposal. Intel Itanium. AMD: Opteron 64-bit X86 Intel: Extended Memory Architecture  AMD Opteron Multicore. Nest Labs thermostat: IoT? 10 44
Computers for Scientific and Engineering Including HPC Early calculators & the stored program computer. Early computers. Supercomputers: the Cray Era until Scalables take all.  2 Lines: fastest computers - Cray to Scalables; Minis and super minis (perf/price)  Abacus: arithmetic. Orreries (1750). Zuse start Atanasoff idea conception winter IBM -Harvard Mark I start; ABC (marginal) op. Zuse Z3: relays,  tape program, fl.pt. Bletchley Park: Bombe. Colossus use;  Harvard Mark I op. ENIAC start. BTL:Relay Interpolator (model II). ACE start (Turing Report); ENIAC op; EDSAC 512 words delay line memory 5/6 op. Machester Mk I. NPL Pilot ACE. ERA 1101. NBS: SEAC & SWAC. MIT: Whilrwind electrostatic memory. IAS operated. IBM 701 (Defense Calculator). IBM 650. IBM 704. Project Stretch start. NEC NEAC I (transistor computer) Comp centers: IBM 7090.  UNIVAC 1108. CDC 1604. CDC 160 for offline.Ferranti Atlas intro. UNIVAC LARC June.  IBM Stetch LASL May accept. Manchester-Ferranti Atlas fastest op.  Atlas (one level store aka virtual memory).  IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/7.   Univac 1108 from ERA div. CDC 6600 delivery.   Amdahl's Law posited. SIMULA as first object oriented lanaguage. IBM 360/91-95 "fighting machine" to compete with 6600 => consent decree. IBM: 360/85 cache. CDC 7600 ILLIAC IV (SIMD). HP 35. HP 65 Programmable Calc. CDC: STAR Delivery (String-Array).  Cray 1: establish vector architecture  DEC: VAX 780 mini (perf/$) & VMS. Cyber 205 Cray: XMP 420 Mflops. Cal Tech Cosmic Cube: 64 node hypercube. Scalable era begins. Cray: XMP. Convex: C-1 supermini. Alliant: FX-1 supermini. nCube. iPSC personsal supercomputer.NSF Centers: NCSA, SDSC. Livermore Loops benchmark. Cray2. Thinking Machines: CM1 (SIMD) Gustafson's Law of scalable computing. Sandia:1st Bell Prize, 1K node nCUBE. XMP: 1/2 GF. ETA: ETA-10 GF succeeds CDC-line. Supercompuing 1988 (No.1).Cray YMP: 2.7 GF, 8 proc. Convex: C2 mini-super. Ardent: Graphic Super.  Cray Computer: Cray3 (last) Thinking Machines CM2 SIMD: 14 GF, 64K? PE E. Brooks: "Atack of Killer Micros". Intel Touchstone Delta,  Multicomputer w/512 C @ Caltech. Linpack Benchmark.  Top500 listing. Begin scalable multicomputer era. CM5 Linpack @ 60 GF.  Beowulf: COTS scalability recipe. MPI-1 standard. Cray 64 GF, 32 P, T-90 ends monomemory era. Fujitsu National Wind Tunnel: 100 Gflops.  Accel Strat Comp Init for  scaling. Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.06, 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc (intel). RLX "blade" intro. NEC Earth Simulator: 41 TF IBM Bluegene: 102 TF, 131 Kproc. IBM BlueGene 1.026 PF 122K PowerCell cores. Graph500 benchmark. Fujitsu Riken 10.5 PF Cray Titan 17.6 PF 122K // with CPU/GPU Green500 Benchmark. China Tianhrne2, 3.1 M cores, 54 PF pk. 14 69
Computers for People at work, at home, at play , to entertain, and in the pocket as applied to computation, record keeping & communication! 5 Lines: Workstations, Personals, PDAs, Games, Entertainment   Napier's Bones: Pocket multiplication (1615). Gunter , Oughtred scales (1620) Airthmometer manufactured (1820). .Circular Rule. Baldwin calculator. Millionaire (1893).         BTL Complex Number Calclator remote Teletype use.         Bush: As We May Think - Memex. ENIAC: 5 Kops, 18K vaccum tubes. Curta Model 1 Handheld         EDSAC: OXO game.     Sign up & use. Bendix G-15 (ACE derived).  LGP-30. MIT (Lincoln Lab): TX-0 (transistor)     IBM 1620 DEC PDP-1. MIT CTSS Each of us share an IBM 7090. LINC first PC, with file system. PDP-1: Spacewar (Russell et al).  Sketchpad (Sutherland). GM DAC-1. Cassette tape Friden desk calculator (transistor). IBM: APL. Berkeley: Timesharing SDS 930. Dartmouth TSS BASIC . Rand: JOSS on Johniac. DEC: PDP-6 Timesharing =>TOPS-10. CDC SCOPE. EXEC 8. Olivetti: Programma 101. Multics. BOS/360. TOS/360. OS/360. DOS/360. LOGO (Papert). CP/CMS. Michigan TS. TSS/360. HP 9100 Desktop.   UNIX first edition programmer's manual Bowmar Brain hand held calculator. DEC OS-8 personal computing. Kenbak-1 for personal use. HP 35. Atari Pong. Magnavox Odyssey Game (analog). Dungeons, Zork, Crime. WYSIWYG.  Micral PC (8008). HP 65 Programmable Calc. Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet.  MITS Altair 8800. Microsoft BASIC delivered ?? IBM: 5100. DR (Kildall): CPM. Xerox: STAR. Apple: model 1. Apple II. Commodore Pet. TRS-80 use 6502. Atari Video Comp. Sys. TI Speak & Spell. Shughart: 5-1/4" disk. Sinclair ZX80. CD. Atari 400 (game), 800 (home(. Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989 BBC Micro.Apollo DN-100 & token ring. IBM PC. Xerox Star. MS-DOS. Sony: 3-1/2" Floppy. Osborne 1 (portable). Commodore 64 22M. IBM PC. Kaypro, SUN 1. CD ROMs. Pacman. Lotus 1-2-3. MIDI music interface. Apple Lisa. Compaq: ship as PC clone. Silicon Graphics: Iris.  Apple Macintosh. IBM PC/AT. Sony 3.5" floppy. Commodore: Amiga. Pixar. CD/ROM Compaq uses 386. Apple: Hypercard. Sun SPARC Workstation. IBM PS/2. Microsoft: Windows 3, Excel, Word. NeXT (Jobs' workstation). Maxis: SimCity Nintendo GameBoy.Windows 3.1.  Go: PenPoint. 3-1/2" Diskette.   Mosaic Browser release UofI NCSA. Apple: Newton w/50K sales. Casio Zoomer. Doom. Windows NT. Sony PlayStation. Palm: Pilot PDA I. Microsoft: Windows 95.  First Wiki Palm Pilot s. Windows CE.   Rio Digital Audio Player (DAP) Creative Labs Nomad DA). BlackBerry: pocket email service. iRiver Player DAP. Microsoft: XP. Apple: iPod plaform. BodyMedia on body band for fitnss. Microsoft: Xbox. Treo: phones & PDAs. Microsoft Tablet PC.     YouTube. Microsoft: Vista. Nintendo : Wii with gesture input. 100 millionth iPod. iPhone intro 6/07.  Android O/S. Netbooks PC intros. iOS SDK. Android Smartphone 10/08. Fitbit counts steps for uploading. Windows 7. iPad 3/10. Microsoft: Xbox Kinect (voice, gestures). iPad 2. Android tablets. iPad 3, 4. iPad Mini 1. Windows 8 OS with dual tablet & desktop UI's. Microsoft Windows  8.1. Microsoft Xbox One.   47 106
I/0: interfaces to people are "things" …changing bits displays, pens, mouse, card devices, biometrics, handwriting, speech, graphical user interface… any and all between computers and people or other info processors.  User interfaces: audio, visual, haptic, etc. Guttenberg (1440). Sholes Typewriter (1874).  Remington Model 1. Baudot code, Teletype HP: Audio osciallator for Disney's Fantasia. BTL Remote access; CSIRAC Computer plays music Doug Ross: direct keyboard input. MIT Lincoln Lab: Display and light pen Max Mathews Music Compiler plays on 704. Teletype ASR 33: 10 char/sec. Teletype 35: 30 char/sec. ATM Enfield install Engelbart: FJCC "Mother of All Demos" DEC: VT05 ASCI CRT, Engelbart: Mouse Patent IBM 3270 Xerox PARC: Shoup-Superpaint. Xerox Laser Printer. TI: Speak & Spell MIDI Standard. Microft: Word. Adobe: Postscript. Adobe. Aldus: PageMaker. Adobe: Illustrator. Pixare Adobe: Photoshop CMU VuMan 1. Video Toaster editing. Terminator 2: Judgement day.  Wearable computer with eyetap and twiddler keyboard (Thad Starner). MIT Media lab (Steve Mann, et al) build Souisveillance devices. Napster for music sharing. Kindle 11/07 book reader. Siri-iPhone intro for natural language input. Google Glass enables Extreme Lifelogging & direct interaction UI; Microsoft Cortana nat. lang. input. 29
Computers for record keeping & transaction processing including Cloud Computing Record keeping: from cave drawings, paper, printing, books, card control, to magnetic tape & disks for record keeping. Search engines, databases, TPC, General ledgers, order entry, APACHE, Databases for Search, Archive.org  4 Lines: Record keeping, Transaction Process,  Databases, Web services Papyrus. 3000 BC: Cuniform records indicate transactions.  Codex replace Paypyrus rolls. Simpson, Data-processing practice (1755). Table of products (1781) Comptometer (1886). Burroughs Adding machines. Hollerith: Census (1890), Tabulating Machine Co. (1896). BTM, Powes Samos, Rem Rand formed. Card perforator & sorter (1895). LEO ( EDSAC based) card, paper tape, intoduced. UNIVAC I, decimal, delay line, mag tape for bulk store, accepted. IBM 305 Ramac, 5 MB disk. Burroughs 205,220. ERMA introduced. IBM 1401 replaces card tabulation equipment. Quicksort. COBOL60 Burroughs B5000, 5500 (64). IBM 1301 1311 removable disk. IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/7. Bachman: IDS Networked database.  SABRE Reservations system on line (dual 7090).  IBM OS/360 ship. NYSE computer trade. ATM Enfield install. IBM 1360 Terabit  Photo Store. IBM TR: E F Codd relational database. IBM: 8" Floppy. IBM 370 Universal Product Code: ?? Tandem Fault-Tolerant. Amdahl: 470 delivered to establish the IBM plug compatible industry. Tandem: 16 Fault-Tolerant for trans proc. Honeywell: Relational dbase? DEC VT100 ASCI CRT.  Shughard: 5-1/4" Floppy. DEC: VMS Clusters. Stratus: redundant, non-stop. Sequent: Balance "multi". SQL Standard. Archive.org Google. Apache Web Server 2. IBM zSeries 900 (64 bit 360). Friendster. LinkedIn. Myspace.  Facebook.  Amazon Web Servisces: Elastic Cloud, EC2. Simple Storage Service, S3. 32
Computers doing artificial intelligence   Robots Turing: On Computable Numbers… Turing: Computing Machinery and Intelligence MIT Servomechanisms: Auto Programmed Tool. UNIMATE Industrial Robot: delived.  Racho Arm (6 degrees). DENDRAL expert system: Feigenbaum-Lederberg Weizenbaum: ELIZA Minsky: Tencle Arm. Scheinman Arm. SRI: Skaky mobile robot. Silver Arm: Kurzweil Reading Machine. Stanford Cart. Japan establishes Fifth Generation AI Prooject. DARPA SCI Strat Comp Init. IBM Bluegene becomes world chess champion. iRobot: Roomba. In Touch Health telerobot. DARPA Grand Challenge: CMU. DARPA Autonomous Vehicle Prize, Stanford. DARPA Urban Challenge: CMU. 3D Robotics Autopilot. IBM Watson wins Jeporady. Rethink Robotics: Baxter. 24
Computers for Communication & Networking Communication and Networks: Alphabets, signalling (crusades towers, smoke signals, semaphore, telegraphy),  message switching, packet switching, ARPA net, internet, WWW, wireless telephony, WiFi 3 lines: telephony including wireless telephony, data networks (incl. internet & web), TV. Optical Semiphore (1700). Henry: Telegraph (1831). Telegraph& Morse code (1837); paper tape telegraph. Daguerre fax (1839). Transatlantic Cable proposal. "bug Shannon: The Mathmatical Theory of Communication. ATT: Dataphone (1st commercial modem) Baran: Presentation on Survivable Nets. Kleinrock: Thesis Proposal Info Flow in Large Comm. Nets. Licklider: Intergalactic Network. ASCII. Baran: RAND "On Dstributed Comm". Kleinrock: Comm. Nets: Message Flow & Delay. IBM SABRE for airline reservaions. Davies @NPL: Names "Packet Switching". Marill-Roberts: TX-2 to Q-32 Connection. NYSE: basic trading funcions. SRI: Acoutstic Modem. ARPAnet Plan (Roberts) AT&T:56 Kbps.  BBN: ARPAnet contract win. ARPAnet: UCLa-SRI. Establish Network Working Group. RS-232 protocol. ATM. Tomlinson: Email. Wozniak: Blue Box. TCP paper. Internet gateway arch (Cerf, Kahn). Metcalfe: Ethernet, Xerox PARC. Telenet: service intro (Roberts). Multinetwork demo. Data Encrytion Standard. USENET USENET. Prestel (UK). First Worm (Shoch). Multi-user domain game (Dungeon). 802.3 Ethernet std. TCP/IP established.  Minitel (France).  ARPANET: TCP/IP switchover. DNS introduced. Motorola DynnTAC. NSFNET connects 5 supercomputer centers. WELL. TCP/IP established. NSFNet: 56Kb. NSF T1 Backbone. UUNET. AT&T Transatlantic Fiber. NSFNET: T1 backone.  Morris' worm floods the network. MCI, Compuserve: email. WWW. Archie, Gopher, WAIS services. NSF backbone: T3. one TB/month, 100 countries, 600Khosts, 5K networks. NSF accepts firms. PGP for email. WWW. One Million hosts. Internet Society. Yahoo founded. Netscape.  100 Mbps Ethernet. Apache Web Server 1.  Archive.org fouded to capture WWW. WiFi standard. 1 Gbps Ethernet. Dust aka Wireless Sensor Nets proposal & RF breadboard. 802.11: 11 Mbps Berkeley Mote. Ember founded WSN. Dust Networks: WSN. 10 Gbps Ethernet. 802.11: 54 Mpbs. AWS SDK: Amazon Elastic Cloud, EC2 & Storage. 41
Other … inventions, magazine, newspaper, predictions, society Steam Engine (1767).  Volta: Battery (1800). Incandescent bulb 1879). Luddites (1811). Grace Hopper finds "bug" at Harvard MkI.  Moore Summer School on computer Cybernetics (Norbert Weiner). Waatson: "all computeation electronic in a decade". UNIVAC calls the election for Eisenhower. Turing suicide.  IBM SHARE (user's group). Datamation Magazine. ACM Formed. Kilby patent (wired chip interconnect) Xerox Copier. ARPA IPTO: Licklider. Nelson:  Hypertext mention. Eckert & Mauchly: patent. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Eckert & Mauchly: patent invalid. Byte Magazine. Microsoft started. Mead Conway" Introduction to VLSI Systems". Time: Computer is Man of the Year. Camcorder. Gibson: Neuromance> Cyberspace. Ken Wildon: Computation is the 3rd Paradim of Science. NSF Report: “Visualization in Scientific Computing”. Pixar: "Tin Toy" Oscar. Wired Magazine Vol 1. Pixar: Toy Story, first animated feature film DVD intro Wikipedia started. Jim Gray: Data is the 4th Paradigm of Science. 31
Year B.C.-1600 1600-1800 1800-1890 1890-1945 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 0
Companies Arithmometer (1886) => Burroughs  => Unisys (1986) C-T-R founded  (1911) => IBM (1924) Hewlett-Packard Eckert-Mauchly Computer Co. (UNIVAC, Div. of Remington Rand) Heinz Nixdorf Computer  Co.  Schockley Semi Lab. Fairchild Semiconductor. Control Data Copr. (CDC). Digital Equip. Corp (DEC=>Compaq (1998) =>HP (2002). Scientific Data Systems (SDS) => Xerox Data Sys (1969-1975). Tandy aka Radio Shack. Thinking Machines Corp. Commodore Bus. Machines Intel. Evans & Sutherland. AMD. Xerox Palo Alto Res Center (PARC) RCA computer exit. IMSAI Microsoft. Apple Inc. Brounderbund Compaq=> HP (2002). Sun Microsytstem => Oracle (2010). Lucas film animation group(1979) =>Pixar. Yahoo. Google. MySpace. Skype =>Microsoft (2003). LinkedIn. Facebook.  YouTube. Twitter. 6 32