Published in ACM Transactions on Graphics, Volume 31, Issue 4 (SIGGRAPH 2012)

Printing Spatially Varying Reflectance for Reproducing HDR Images

fabrication resutls

Given an HDR input image (a), we print the image with glossy inks in such a way that when either the print orientation (b) or the lighting direction (c) are changed, different luminance levels of the original image are displayed. The appearance of the print under changing lighting is shown in (d), while the appearance of the print under orientation change is shown in the accompanying video. Another result for viewing scenario (b) can be found in Figure 5. All results shown in this paper are photographs of actual prints. HDR image courtesy of Paul Debevec.


We present a solution for viewing high dynamic range (HDR) images with spatially-varying distributions of glossy materials printed on reflective media. Our method exploits the appearance variations of the glossy materials in the angular domain to display the input HDR image at different exposures. As viewers change the print orientation or lighting directions, the print gradually varies its appearance to display the image content from the darkest to the brightest levels. Our solution is based on a commercially available printing system and is fully automatic. Given the input HDR image and the BRDFs of a set of available inks, our method computes the optimal exposures of the HDR image for all viewing conditions and the optimal ink combinations for all pixels by minimizing the difference of their appearances under all viewing conditions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method with print samples generated from different inputs and visualized under different viewing and lighting conditions.


appearance fabrication, high dynamic range images



 author = {Dong, Yue and Tong, Xin and Pellacini, 
 Fabio and Guo, Baining},
 title = {Printing spatially-varying reflectance 
 for reproducing HDR images},
 journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
 issue_date = {July 2012},
 volume = {31},
 number = {4},
 month = jul,
 year = {2012},
 issn = {0730-0301},
 pages = {40:1--40:7},
 articleno = {40},
 numpages = {7},
 url = {},
 doi = {10.1145/2185520.2185536},
 acmid = {2185536},
 publisher = {ACM},
 address = {New York, NY, USA},
 keywords = {appearance fabrication, 
 high dynamic range images},


The authors would like to thank Stephen Lin for paper proofreading. The authors also thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful suggestions and comments. Fabio Pellacini was supported by the NSF (CNS-070820, CCF-0746117), Intel and the Sloan Foundation.


Fabricating Spatially-Varying Subsurface Scattering