Mary Czerwinski

Microsoft Research

One Microsoft Way

Redmond, WA 98052-6399

email: marycz@microsoft.com

http://research.microsoft.com/users/marycz

Microsoft Corporation (1995-on) Redmond, Washington

As of December, 2002: Senior Researcher and Group Manager, Visualization and Interaction Research Group. The VIBE team's mission is to design elegant visualization and interaction techniques that span the full spectrum of devices and displays.

Before July 1997: Manager, Interactive Media Division Usability. Responsible for orchestrating all human-computer interaction research for the Interactive Media, Hardware and Desktop Finance Division product teams. Other duties included communicating benefits of usability engineering to management, hiring and maintaining a world-class staff, and aligning with academic and industry partners in research relationships. Personal research projects centered on attention and engagement and how they are related to World Wide Web user interface design and usage.

University of Washington Psychology Department (1996-on) Seattle, Washington

Affiliate assistant professor of psychology. Involved in departmental research through professor/student relationships and internships. Guest lecturer on usability engineering for various departments on campus.

Compaq Computer Corporation (1990-1995)Houston, Texas

Research lead, software human factors design and test. Managed and contributed to all software user interface design and evaluation research. Conducted cognitive and task analysis modeling procedures to benefit user interface design. Worked on user interfaces to the web, speech-driven voicemail applications, systems management products and consumer software applications, both in-house and with third parties.

Rice University, Department of Psychology (1990-1995)Houston, Texas

Adjunct faculty member in Psychology. Instructed graduate course in Information Processing and Attention with an applied emphasis; Mentored Human Factors students.

Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Corporation (1989-1990) Houston, Texas

Applied research lead, Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory. Directed all applied research in the human-computer interaction laboratory at Johnson Space Center, as well as conducted own avenues of research for user interfaces to intelligent systems and multitasking environments. Published and reviewed technical articles, wrote grant proposals and prepared project schedules.

Bell Communications Research (1988-1989)Piscataway, New Jersey

Member of technical staff, Human Factors Engineer. Designed graphical user interfaces and wrote technical requirements for a packet-switched planning network. Aided in the preparation and dissemination of corporate user interface design guidelines.

Education

Professional Activities:

Professional Memberships

Teaching Interests:  Human-computer interaction, attention, memory, usability engineering.

Current Research Project Summary:

 

WorkFlow Changes across Different Display Sizes

VibeLog is a logging tool that allows us to research the ways that work practice might change as users move in between various sized displays throughout their work day. Once we understand work practice changes and issues from marrying our logging tool with ethnographic research data, we should have a good understanding of what parts of the designs of Windows and Office do not scale well across different display sizes. This fresh understanding, based on large amounts of log data, will justify where we should expend our research efforts in novel visualization and interaction, with an eye toward designing more elegant UIs.

New User Interaction Models and Corresponding Visualizations

Larger display surfaces expose the limitations of some of the most fundamental Windows interaction primitives, especially minimize/maximize and move/resize. It is possible we can create new interaction mechanisms that extrapolate better to displays of arbitrary sizes and configurations, by giving more consideration to the mapping between a user's attention space and the desktop layout space. We are exploring more sophisticated mechanisms for window movement, window placement, window grouping, and task switching. We are also running studies with external users to refine and optimize our designs in this area.

GroupBar, Timeline Views and Layouts

The ProjectBar, GroupBar are running prototypes designed to explore the integration of "project management" facilities into the current Windows taskbar. Windows currently doesn't help users group their open windows in any way - as more and more windows get opened, the screen and the taskbar get very cluttered, and productivity can be enhanced by offering the ability to selectively show and hide groups of windows organized into higher-level tasks. Each prototype explores a different interpretation of the higher-level task and a different visualization. In GroupBar, our latest prototype, each task is represented by a "Group" button or tab on the TaskBar, and Groups can be operated on much like individual window tiles. "Snapshots" of previous groups and desktop layouts can be captured and used to later restore those files and applications.

High-Density Cursor

As screen sizes increase, e.g. as multiple monitor configurations become more popular, users use higher mouse cursor speeds as well as stronger mouse acceleration in order to traverse the screen from side to side reasonably fast. The faster the mouse cursor moves, however, the more likely users are to lose track of it. One key reason is that the cursor is rendered only once per frame, which makes it visually jump from one rendering position to the next, with the distance increasing with the cursor's speed. high-density cursor addresses this issue by using a specific type of motion blur. By filling the space between the current cursor position and the previous one with additional fill-in cursor images, high-density cursor bridges the gaps between cursor positions, resulting in an effect similar to increasing the display frame rate. Since all cursor images exist only for a single frame, the proposed technique does not introduce any lag, which makes it different from similar-looking techniques, such as the MS Windows mouse trail.

Collaborating around Large Displays

Large displays can foster spatially co-located collaboration with people carrying information on various mobile devices. Today people gather around a whiteboard to brainstorm or gather in front of a TV to watch a film. The additional affordances of large displays - be they multiple monitor PCs, huge projected screens, or the heterogeneous display environments created by PCs, laptops, and PDAs - can be harnessed to help people work and play better together. We are exploring the new interaction techniques needed to manipulate and share information throughout this heterogeneous display space.

Drag-and-Pop

Drag-and-pop is an interaction technique designed to accelerate drag-and-drop on large screens. By animating potential targets and bringing them to the dragged object, drag-and-pop reduces the user effort required for dragging an object across the screen to a desired target. To preserve users' spatial memory, targets are not moved away from their original location, but are instead stretched using a rubber band-like visualization.

Notifications

The current system for notifications is somewhat ad hoc and will not scale well as more and more applications make isolated choices about how and when to assault the user's attention. We are looking at how to best exploit the user's finite and fragile attention space, what new notification paradigms larger display surfaces create, and how to offer users the right amount of control over the aggregate behavior of the notification system. As in all of our work, we run user studies to ensure that our notifications system respects the user's attention and provides optimal support for their information needs.

Reviewer for:

Publications

Baudisch, P., Cutrell, E., Robbins, D., Czerwinski, M., Tandler, P. Bederson, B., and Zierlinger, Z. Drag-and-Pop and Drag-and-Pick: Techniques for Accessing Remote Screen Content on Touch- and Pen-operated Systems. To appear in Proceedings of Interact 2003.

Cutrell, E., Czerwinski, M. & Horvitz, E. (2001). Notification, Disruption and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Performance. In Human-Computer Interaction--Interact '01, Hirose, M. (Ed.), IOS Press, pp.263-269. Copyright IFIP, 2001.

Czerwinski, M., Smith, G., Regan, T., Meyers, B., Robertson, G. and Starkweather, G.  (2003).  Toward characterizing the productivity benefits of very large displays.  In M. Rauterberg et al. (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction--INTERACT '03, IOS Press, 252-255. Copyright IFIP, 2003.

Czerwinski, M., Tan, D.S. & Robertson, G.G. (2002). Women take a wider view. Paper presented at ACM SIGCHI 2002

Czerwinski, M., Cutrell, E. & Horvitz, E. (2000). Instant Messaging and Interruption: Influence of Task Type on Performance, In Paris, C., Ozkan, N., Howard, S. and Lu, S. (Ed's.), OZCHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, Sydney, Australia, Dec. 4-8, pp. 356-361.

Czerwinski, M., Cutrell, E. & Horvitz, E. (2000). Instant Messaging: Effects of Relevance and Time, In S. Turner, P. Turner (Eds), People and Computers XIV: Proceedings of HCI 2000, Vol. 2, British Computer Society, p. 71-76.

Chen, C., Czerwinski, M. & Macredie, R. (2000). Individual differences in virtual environments--Introduction and Overview. In Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(6), 499-507.Copyright 2000 by International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.

Chen, C. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1997).  Spatial ability and visual navigation:  An empirical study.  In The New Review for Multimedia and Hypermedia, 3, 67-91.

Chen, C. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1998).  From Latent semantics to spatial hypertext--An integrated approach.  In Proceedings of Hypertext '98: Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia, Pittsburgh, 77-86.

Cutrell, E., Czerwinski, M. & Horvitz, E. (2000). Effects of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Computing Tasks. In Extended Abstracts of CHI 2000, Human Factors in Computing Systems, (The Hague, April 1-6, 2000), ACM press, 99-100. Copyright 1999 by ACM, Inc.

Czerwinski, M., Cutrell, E. & Horvitz, E. (2000). Instant Messaging and Interruption: Influence of Task Type on Performance, In Paris, C., Ozkan, N., Howard, S. and Lu, S. (Ed's.), OZCHI 2000 Conference Proceedings, Sydney, Australia, Dec. 4-8, pp. 356-361.

Czerwinski, M., Cutrell, E. & Horvitz, E. (2000). Instant Messaging: Effects of Relevance and Time, In S. Turner, P. Turner (Eds), People and Computers XIV: Proceedings of HCI 2000, Vol. 2, British Computer Society, p. 71-76.

Czerwinski, M. (1999).  Research Methods for Next Generation HCI.  In Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction International 1999, Munich, August 21-27.

Czerwinski, M. (1999).  Trends in Future Web Designs.  In Proceedings of Human-Computer Interaction International 1999, Munich, August 21-27.

Czerwinski, M., van Dantzich, M., Robertson, G.G. & Hoffman, H. (1999).  The Contribution of Thumbnail Image, Mouse-over Text and Spatial Location Memory to Web Page Retrieval in 3D.  In Proceedings of Interact '99, Edinburgh, Scotland, Sept. 1-4.

Czerwinski, M., Dumais, S.T., Robertson, G.G., Dziadosz, S., Tiernan, S. and van Dantzich, M. (1999).  Visualizaing Implicit Queries for Information Management and Retrieval.  In Proceedings of CHI ’99, Human Factors in Computing Systems, (Pittsburgh, May 17-20, 1999), ACM press.

Czerwinski, M., Larson, K., & Robbins, D. (1998). Designing for Navigating Personal Web Information: Retrieval Cues. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomic Society's 42nd Annual Meeting, 458-462.

Czerwinski, M.P. & Larson, K. (1998). Web Design: What's next for the HCI Professional? In ACM's Interactions magazine, December.

Czerwinski, M.P., & Larson, K. (1997). The new web browsers: They’re cool but are they useful? In the companion proceedings to the Human-Computer Interaction ’97 Conference, People and Computers XII, University of West England, Bristol, UK, August, 1997.

Czerwinski, M.P., Risden, K. & Kanerva, A. (1996). Usability and web content: Emerging research trends at Microsoft Corporation. In the companion proceedings to the Human-Computer Interaction ’96 Conference, People and Computers XI, Imperial College, London, August, 1996.

Czerwinski, M.P., Dringus, L., Sears, A. & Thomas, B.B. (1996). Educating HCI Practitioners: Evaluating what industry needs and what academia delivers. In the proceedings to the ACM SIGCHI ’96 Human Factors in Computing Systems, April, Vancouver, B.C.; also in SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (4), pp. 26-28.

Czerwinski, M.P., Feldman, E. & Cuttrell, E. (1994). The influence of stimulus characteristics and training on visual search performance. In the Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting, Nashville, October.

Czerwinski, M.P., & Jorna, G. (1994). Software review of MicroSaint for UNIX Operating Systems. Ergonomics in Design, April, 35-36.

Czerwinski, M.P. & Nguyen, T. (1993). Human Factors involvement in delivering an AI application to the enduser. Paper presentedand published in the conference proceedings of SOAR: Space Operations and Research, August, Johnson Space Center in Houston.

Czerwinski, M.P., Lightfoot, N. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1992). Automatization and training in visual search. American Journal of Psychology, Special issue on Views and Varieties of Automaticity, 105, 271-315.

Czerwinski, M.P., Chrisman, S.E., & Rudisill, M. (1991). Interruptions in multitasking situations: The effects of similarity and warning. NASA Technical Report #JSC-24757.

Czerwinski, M.P. (1990). Automated system function allocation and display format: Task information processing requirements. NASA Technical Report # JSC- 23892.

Czerwinski, M.P. (1988). Differences between visual and memory search: Implications for models of attention. Unpublished doctoral thesis.

Dutta, A., Walker, B.N., Czerwinski, M.P. & Feldman, E.M. (1996). Some fundamentals of training and transfer: Practice benefits are not automatic. Chapter  in Dutta, A. & Quinones, M.A. (Eds.), Training for 21st Century Technology: Applications of Psychological Research, APA Books.

Hanna, L., Risden, K., Alexander, K. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1998).  The role of usability in children's technology design.  In Druin, A. (Ed.), Technology and Children's Product Design, Morgan Kaufman.

Interaction and Modeling Techniques for Desktop Two-Handed Input, Hinckley, K., Czerwinski, M. & Sinclair, M. (1998). In Proceedings of ACM UIST'98 Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, 49-58.

Hines, D., Czerwinski, M., Sawyer, P.K., & Dwyer, M. (1986). Automatic semantic priming: Effect of category exemplar level and word association level. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 12, 1-10.

Hines, D., Sawyer, P.K., Dura, J., Gilchrist, J., and Czerwinski, M.P. (1984). Hemispheric asymmetry in the use of semantic category information. Neuropsychologia, 22, 427-433.

Web Usability Research at Microsoft Corporation, Kanerva, A., Keeker, K., Risden, K., Schuh, E. & Czerwinski, M. In J. Ratner, E. Grosse and C. Forsythe (eds.) Human Factors for World Wide Web Development, Lawrence Erlbaum, New York, United States of America, 1997.

Larson, K., van Dantzich, M., Czerwinski, M. & Robertson, G. Text in 3D: Some Legibility Results. In Extended Abstracts of CHI 2000, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM press, 145-146.

Larson, K. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1998).  Web Page Design: Implications of Memory, Structure and Scent for Information Retrieval.  in the proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) CHI '98 Conference, April, Los Angeles, CA.

Lightfoot, N., Czerwinski, M.P. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1992). On the automatization of visual search. Chapter in C. Izawa's (Ed.), Cognitive Psychology Applied.

Nguyen, T., Czerwinski, M.P. & Lee, D. (1993). COMPAQ QuickSource: Providing the consumer with the power of artificial intelligence. AI Magazine, 14, 50-60.

Purvis, C.J., Czerwinski, M.P. & Weiler, P.A. (1994). The Human Factors Group at Compaq Computer Corporation. Chapter in Wiklund, M. (Ed.) Usability in Practice: Human Factors Organizations in Industry, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Risden, K., Czerwinski, M., Munzner, T. & Cook, D. (2000). An Initial Examination of Ease of Use for 2D and 3D Information Visualizations of Web Content. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies: Special Issue on Empirical Evaluations of Information Visualizations, 53(5), 695-714. Copyright 2000 by International Journal of Human-Computer Studies.

Risden, K., Czerwinski, M.P., Worley, S., Hamilton, L., Kubiniec, J., Hoffman, H., Mickel, N., & Loftus, E. (1998). Interactive advertising: Patterns of use and effectiveness, in the proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) CHI '98 Conference, April, Los Angeles, CA.

Robertson, G.G. et al. (2000). The Task Gallery: A 3D Windows Manager. In Proceedings of CHI 2000, Human Factors in Computing Systems, (The Hague, April 1-6, 2000), ACM press, p.494-501. Copyright 1999 by ACM, Inc.

Robertson, G.G., Czerwinski, M.P. & van Dantizich, M. (1997).  Quantifying immersion in desktop virtual reality.  In proceedings of UIST '97 Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, October, Banff, Canada.

Robertson, G. , Czerwinski, M., Larson, K., Robbins, D., Thiel, D. & van Dantzich, M. (1998). Data Mountain: Using Spatial Memory for Document Management, In Proceedings of ACM UIST'98 Symposium on User Interface Software & Technology, 153-162.

Robertson, G.G., van Dantaich, M., Robbins, D., Czerwinski, M., Hinckley, K., Risden, K., Thiel, D. and Gorokhovsky, V. (2000). The Task Gallery: A 3D Window Manager. In Proceedings of CHI 2000, Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM press, 494-591.

Schumacher, R.M. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1991) Mental Models and the acquisition of expert knowledge. Chapter in R.R. Hoffman (Ed.), The Psychology of Expertise: Empirical Approaches to AI, New York: Springer-Verlag.

Steve Shafer, John Krumm, Barry Brumitt, Brian Meyers, Mary Czerwinski, and Daniel Robbins, (1998). The New EasyLiving Project at Microsoft Research, Joint DARPA/NIST Smart Spaces Workshop, July 30-31, 1998, Gaithersburg, Maryland.

Shiffrin, R.M., Czerwinski, M.P., & Lightfoot, N. (1991). On the automatization of visual search. Indiana University Cognitive Science Research Report #48, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

Shiffrin, R.M. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1988). A model of automatic attention attraction when mapping is partially consistent. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 562-569.

Smith, G., Baudisch, P., Robertson, G. G., Czerwinski, M., Meyers, B., Robbins, D., Horvitz, E. & Andrews, D. (2003).  GroupBar: The TaskBar Evolved.  To appear in proceedings of OZCHI 2003.

Tan, D., Czerwinski, M., Robertson, G. G. (Submitted).  Large displays enhance optical flow cues and close the gender gap in 3D virtual navigation.  Journal article submitted to Human Factors.

Tan, D. & Czerwinski, M. (2003). Effects of visual separation and physical discontinuities when distributing information across multiple devices.  In M. Rauterberg et al. (Eds.), Human-Computer Interaction--INTERACT '03, IOS Press, 252-255. Copyright IFIP, 2003.

Tan, D.S.,Czerwinski, M., & Robertson, G.G. (2003). Women Go with the (Optical) Flow. To appear in Proceedings of CHI 2003, Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 209-215, ACM press. Copyright © 2003 by ACM, Inc.

Tan, D. and Czerwinski, M. (2003). Information Voyeurism: Social Impact of Physically Large Displays on Information Privacy. To appear in Proceedings of CHI 2003, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, April 2003, pp. 748-749, ACM press. Copyright © 2003 by ACM, Inc.

Tan, D.S., Czerwinski, M., & Robertson, G.G. (2001). Exploring 3D Navigation: Combining Speed-Coupled Flying with Orbiting. Paper presented at ACM SIGCHI 2001

Tiernan, S.L., Cutrell, E., & Czerwinski, M. (2001). Effective Notification Systems Depend on User Trust, In Human-Computer Interaction--Interact '01, Hirose, M. (Ed.), IOS Press, pp.684-685. Copyright IFIP, 2001.

Weiler, P.M., & Czerwinski, M.P. (1992). The Human Factors Group at Compaq Computer Corporation. Lab review published in the proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) CHI '92 Conference, May, Monterey, CA.

 

Non-Archived Conference Presentations

Keynote Addresses: Information Visualization, London, 2001; IEEE HCC, Auckland, October, 2003; Graphics Interface, May, 2004.

Distinguished Speaker: Centre for Systems Science, Simon Frasier University, September 23, 2002.  Large Display Interaction.

Computing in the 21st Century, Beijing, China, April 24, 2000.

Keynote at Web '99 on The Future of Web Design, San Francisco, July 1st.

SIGGRAPH '98 panel on Human Factors Issues in Virtual Worlds.

CHI ’98 panel of Web Design: Essential Ingredient.

Two panels at CHI 97 in Atlanta this March: Web Design Live!, coordinated by Jakob Nielson and Corporate Strategy and Usability Research: A New Partnership, coordinated by Stephanie Rosenbaum.

Czerwinski, M.P., Chrisman, S.E., & Schumacher, R.M. (1991). Interruptions in multitasking situations: The influence of similarity and immediacy. Interactive Poster Session at the Association for Computing Machinery's CHI '91 Conference, May, New Orleans, LA.

Czerwinski, M.P. (1990). Automated Thermal Control System Fault Diagnosis: Effects of display format and fault processing requirements. Poster presented at the 1990 Human Factors Society Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida.

Czerwinski, M.P., Schumacher, R.M. & Duba, B.F. (1990). KARMA: Knowledge acquisition, retention and maintenance analysis. Interactive Poster Session at the Association for Computing Machinery's CHI '90 Conference, April, Seattle, WA.

Czerwinski, M.P. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1989). Automatic conjunction search for letters. Paper presented at the 61st Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Czerwinski, M.P. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1988). Training visual search for words: Can automaticity develop? Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Czerwinski, M.P. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1988). A test of theories of attention and visual search. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Czerwinski, M.P., Shiffrin, R.M., & Luce, P.A. (1986). The influence of structural properties and repetitions of word and pseudoword identification. Paper presented at the 58th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Hines, D., Czerwinski, M.P., & Sawyer, P.K. (1984). Conscious knowledge and semantic priming: A demonstration of cross-modal facilitation with masked picture primes. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Hines, D., Czerwinski, M.P., & Sawyer, P.K. (1984). Semantic priming without conscious knowledge of the prime: Effect of physical similarity between the prime and the target. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.

Kewley-Port, D., Watson, C.S. & Czerwinski, M.P. (1985). Informational masking in vowel sequences. Acoustical Society of America, Columbus, OH.

Nguyen, T., Czerwinski, M.P. & Lee, D. (1993). COMPAQ QuickSource: Providing the consumer with the power of artificial intelligence. Paper presented at IAAI, AAAI '93 Conference, July, Washington, D.C.

Shiffrin, R.M., Czerwinski, M.P. & Lightfoot, N. (1992). Automatization and attentional learning in visual search. Paper presented at the 3rd Annual Conference on Human Error, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, March, 1992.

References:  Available Upon Request