Year Generaions aka Eras Epoch Inventions Control:  Programs and architecture Computers for Control Computers for Scientific and Engineering  Computers for People I/0: interfaces to people are "things" …changing bits Computers for record keeping & transaction processing  Communication & Networks Other… newspaper, magazine, society Year
manual, mechanical, electro-mech, vacuum tube, transistor (60s foundation era), ICs leading to the micro, WWW, In your pocket: small form factor devices, Algorithms, languages, recipes, instructions, etc. pre computing, and architecture Minicomputers, microprocessors, microcomputers, wireless sensor nets, etc. used for controlling other systesm Early calculators & the stored program computer. Early computers. Supercomputers: the Cray Era until Scalables take all.  at work, at home, at play , to entertain, and in the pocket as applied to computation, record keeping & communication! displays, pens, mouse, card devices, biometrics, handwriting, speech, graphical user interface… any and all between computers and people or other info processors. Robots, Record keeping: from cave drawings, paper, printing, books, card control, to magnetic tape & disks for record keeping. Search engines, databases, TPC, General ledgers, order entry, APACHE, Databases for Search,  Communication and Networks: Alphabets, signalling (crusades towers, smoke signals, semaphore, telegraphy),  message switching, packet switching, ARPA net, internet, WWW, wireless telephony, WiFi
TIMELINE CONTENT algorithms, architectures, languages, and some operating systems  2 or 3 Lines: micros, minis, process control 2 Lines: fastest computers - Cray to Scalables; Minis and super minis (perf/price)  5 Lines: Workstations, Personals, PDAs, Games, Entertainment 4 Lines: Record keeping, Transaction Process,  Databases, Web services 3 lines: telephony including wireless telephony, data networks (incl. internet & web), TV.
B.C.-1600 Pre-computer 1250 BC: Ten commandments, first rule based program. Paper. Printing. Water clock (283).  Clock (1300). Antikythera Calc. Abacus: arithmetic.   Guttenberg (1440). Papyrus. 3000 BC: Cuniform records indicate transactions.  Codex replace Paypyrus rolls. B.C.-1600
1600-1800 Pre-Computer: Manual Orreries (1750). Napier's Bones. Pocket multiplication. Gunter ,Oughtred scales (1620) Simpson, Data-processing practice (1755). Table of products (1781) Optical Semiphore (1700). 1600-1800
1800-1890 Pre-computer: Mechanical & Electric. Bell: telephone message. Boole: The Mathematical Analyis of Logic (1847) Jacquard Loom (1801-06) Airthmometer manufactured (1820). Babbage: starts diff engine construct (1822).Circular Rule. Baldwin calculator.  Sholes Typewriter.  Remington Model 1. Comptometer (1886). Burroughs Adding machines. Henry: Telegraph (1831). Telegraph& Morse code (1837); paper tape telegraph. Daguerre fax (1839). Transatlantic Cable proposal. Luddites (1811). 1800-1890
1890-1945 Pre-computer: Electro-mechanical Cards computing. Vacuum tube (1906). Fiip-flop (1919) Zuse start   Baudot code, Teletype Hollerith: Census (1890), Tabulating Machine Co. (1896). BTM, Powes Samos, Rem Rand formed. Card perforator & sorter (1895). 1890-1945
1937 Pre-computer Electronic: Vacuum tube Electronic vs Electro-Mechanical. Shannon Thesis: Boolean Algebra for Switching Circuits. Atanasoff idea conception winter   1937
1938     1938
1939   IBM -Harvard Mark I start;   1939
1940   BTL Complex Number Calclator remote Teletype use. BTL Remote access; 1940
1941   Zuse Z3 tape programed.  ABC (marginal) op; Zuse Z3: relays,  tape program,;    1941
1942     1942
1943   Mark I tape program Norden Bombsight (?). Collosus use;  Harvard Mark I op. ENIAC start.   1943
1944     1944
1945   EDVAC Draft Report: the stored program computer recipe! EDVAC Draft report 6/30. ACE start;   Bush: As We May Think - Memex. 1945
1946   ENIAC proof. ENIAC vacuum tubes, patchcord program. IAS Burks…von Neumann  report. ENIAC op;   1946
1947   Bell Labs: Transistor IAS paper. Curta Model 1 Handheld 1947
1948   First program. Big Bang. Manchester "Baby" 16 words Williams Tube 6/21 op.    Shannon: The Mathmatical Theory of Communication. 1948
1949   EDSAC 512 words delay line memory 5/6 op.   1949
1950   Shannon: Chess paper & Mouse. NPL Pilot ACE.   1950
1951 1st Gen: Vac. Tube Leo & UNIVAC I, delay lines; UNIVAC Mag. Tape replaces cards. EDSAC team wrote 1st programming book   LEO ( EDSAC based) card, paper tape, intoduced. UNIVAC I, decimal, delay line, mag tape for bulk store, accepted. 1951
1952   Core Memory on MTC IAS operated. EDSAC: OXO game. 1952
1953   Backus FORTRAN start MIT Whirlwind: core memory; Mem. Test Computer (MTC) 1st use. IBM 701 (Defense Calculator)    1953
1954   IBM 650.   1954
1955   Sign up & use. Bendix G-15 (ACE derived).  1955
1956 5 MB/disk IBM 305 Disk (RAMAC) Project Stretch start. LGP-30; TX-0 MIT Lincoln Lab: Display and light pen IBM 305 Ramac, 5 MB disk. Datamation Magazine 1956
1957   FORTRAN used. FORTRAN II for 704   1957
1958   Kilby: IC patent w/wires.   Burroughs 205,220. Kilby patent (wired chip interconnect) 1958
1959 2nd  Gen: Transistors Noyce: IC patent planar process. Fairchild planar transistor. Samuel Chess program IBM 7090.  IBM 1620 ERMA introduced. IBM 1401 replaces card tabulation equipment. Xerox Copier 1959
1960   U Manchester: One level store. COBOL, LISP. Algol 60 Spec. COBOL. LISP.  SNOBOL. CDC 1604. CDC 160 for offline.Ferranti Atlas intro. UNIVAC LARC June.  DEC PDP-1. Quicksort. COBOL60 ATT: Dataphone (1st commercial modem) 1960
1961 Mainframe Era. Snowhite & 7 dwarfs: Burroughs, CDC, GE, Honeywell, NCR, RCA, UNIVAC > BUNCH. Fairchild IC. MIT CTSS.  MIT CTSS tmesharing demo. IBM Stetch LASL May accept. MIT CTSS Each of us share an IBM 7090. UNIMATE Industrial Robot: delived. Teletype ASR 33: 10 char/sec. Burroughs B5000, 5500 (64). Baran: Presentation on Survivable Nets. Kleinrock: Thesis Proposal Info Flow in Large Comm. Nets. 1961
1962   Sketchpad Atlas: One level store. Computer typesetting. Manchester-Ferranti Atlas fastest op. LINC with personal file system. PDP-1: Spacewar.  1311 removable disk. ARPA IPTO: Licklider. 1962
1963   DEC: PDP-5 (mini forerruner). Sketchpad. GM DAC-1. Cassette tape Licklider: Intergalactic Network. ASCII. Nelson:  Hypertext mention. 1963
1964   IBM 360 Annonce 4/7. CDC 6600 (begin Cray era)  APL.  OS 360 announce. SDS: 910, 920, 930.  IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/7.   Univac 1108 from ERA div. CDC 6600 delivery.   Friden desk calculator (transistor). IBM: APL. Berkeley: Timesharing SDS 930. Dartmouth TSS BASIC . Rand: JOSS on Johniac. DEC: PDP-6 Timesharing.  IBM 360 for Science & Commercial announce 4/7. Bachman: IDS Networked database.  Baran: RAND "On Dstributed Comm". Kleinrock: Comm. Nets: Message Flow & Delay. Eckert & Mauchly: patent. 1964
1965   Moore's Law Posited. Cooley Tukey algorithm. Simula introduces objects. DENDRAL expert system: Feigenbaum-Lederberg DEC: PDP-8. Computer Controls: DDP 116, 16-bit mini.  Olivetti: Programma 101. Teletype: 30 Char/sec. SABRE Reservations system on line (dual 7090).  IBM OS/360 ship. Davies @NPL: Names "Packet Switching". Marill-Roberts: TX-2 to Q-32 Connection. 1965
1966 3rd Gen: SSI, MSI. 100tr/chip Apollo Guidance Computer: IC. Honeywell DDP 516: IC mini.   NYSE computer trade. NYSE: basic trading funcions. 1966
1967 100 minicomputer companies form Monolithic Mem chip. Medtronic pacemaker. LOGO. ATM Enfield install ATM Enfield install. IBM 1360 Terabit  Photo Store. ARPAnet Plan (Roberts) 1967
1968   Dijkstra: "Goto harmful". DEC: PDP-8/I IC computer. DG Nova. IBM: 360/85 cache. HP 9100 Desktop. Engelbart: FJCC "Mother of All Demos" AT&T:56 Kbps.  BBN: ARPAnet contract win. 2001: A Space Odyssey. 1968
1969   UNIX @ BTL. IBM: E F Codd Relational Database TR. CDC 7600   IBM TR: E F Codd relational database. ARPAnet: UCLa-SRI. Establish Network Working Group 1969
1970   DEC PDP-11 UNIX first edition programmer's manual DEC: VT05 ASCI CRT, Engelbart: Mouse Patent 1970
1971 4th Gen: uP, LSI. 4Ktr/chip Intel 4004 chip uP. IBM: 8" Floppy. Intel 4004 chip uP. Application control of calculator Bowmar Brain hand held calculator 1971
1972   Email. C  Language ILLIAC IV (Simd). HP 35. HP 35. Atari Pong. Magnavox Odyssey Game (analog). Dungeons, Zork, Crime. WYSIWYG.  IBM 3270 Xerox PARC: Shoup-Superpaint. IBM 370 Tomlinson: Email. 1972
1973   Echert Mauchly patent invalidated.   Universal Product Code: ?? TCP paper. Internet gateway arch (Cerf, Kahn). Metcalfe: Ethernet, Xerox PARC. Eckert & Mauchly: patent invalid. 1973
1974   Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet. MIT LISP Machines. Intel: 8080. Zilog: Z-80.  HP 65 Programmable Calc. CDC: STAR Delivery (String-Array).  HP 65 Programmable Calc. Xerox PARC: Alto & Ethernet.  1974
1975   MITS Altair Kit. MOS Tech: 6502, 1st PCs. MITS Altair. Microsoft BASIC delivered ?? IBM: 5100. Tandem Fault-Tolerant. Amdahl: 470 delivered to establish the IBM plug compatible industry. Telenet: service intro. Byte Magazine. 1975
1976   Cray 1 Vector architecture for 2 decades Cray 1: establish vector architecture  DR: CPM.Xerox: STAR. Apple: model 1. Kurzweil Reading Machine. Tandem: 16 Fault-Tolerant for trans proc. Honeywell: Relational dbase? 1976
1977   First personally affordable  computers. ARM Chip. DEC: VT 78  PDP-8 word process.   DEC: VAX 780 mini (perf/$) & VMS. Apple II, Commodore Pet, TRS-80 use 6502.  Xerox Laser Printer. Multinetwork demo Microsoft started. 1977
1978   C  Language Manual 1st Edition. Intel: 8086.  TI Speak & Spell. Shughart: 5-1/4" disk. TI: Speak & Spell DEC VT100 ASCI CRT. USENET 1978
1979 68Ktr/chip Visicalc.  IBM Research 801 first RISC. Motorola 68,000, 68Ktransistors enable workstations.Intel 8088 29 Ktrans. IM 801 RISC. Sinclair ZX80. CD Prestel (UK) Mead Conway" Introduction to VLSI Systems" 1979
1980 100 PC & workstation companies form Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989 Cyber 205 Symbolics & LISP Machines Inc: build LISP Machines through 1989 1980
1981   Apollo DN-100 & token ring. IBM PC. Xerox Star. MS-DOS. Sony: 3-1/2" Floppy. Osborne 1. Commodore 64 22M munits. MIDI Standard. 1981
1982   Ethernet std. IBM: PC defines Wintel Standard. Intel 286 Cray: XMP 420 Mflops. Kaypro, SUN 1. CD. Pacman. Lotus 1-2-3. 802.3 Ethernet std. TCP/IP established.  Minitel (France).  Time: Computer is Man of the Year. Camcorder. 1982
1983   Microsoft: Word.     Cal Tech: 1st Scalable. Cal Tech Cosmic Cube: 64 node hypercube. Scalable era begins MIDI music interface. Apple Lisa. Compaq: ship. Silicon Graphics: Iris.  Microft: Word. DEC: VMS Clusters. Stratus: redundant, non-stop. ARPANET: TCP/IP switchover. DNS introduced 1983
1984   Apple MacIntosh Cray: XMP. Convex: C-1 supermini. Apple Mac. IBM PC/AT. Sony 3.5" floppy. Adobe: Postscript. DNS introduced Gibson: Neuromance> Cyberspace. 1984
1985   MIPS: RISC processor. Encrore Multimax "multi". Alliant: FX-1 supermini. NSF Centers: NCSA, SDSC Amiga. Pixar. CD/ROM Adobe. Aldus: PageMaker. Sequent: Balance "multi". NSFNET connects 5 supercomputer centers. WELL. 1985
1986 275 Kt/chip Bjarne Stroustrup: C++ Intel: 386 Cray2. Thinking Machines: CM1 (SIMD)   Adobe: Illustrator TCP/IP established. NSFNet: 56Kb. 1986
1987   Apple Hypercard Sun SPARC Chip. Motorola: 68030.  Sandia:1st Bell Prize, 1K node nCUBE. XMP: 1/2 GF. ETA: ETA-10 GF succeeds CDC-line. Apple: Hypercard. NSF T1 Backbone. UUNET. 1987
1988   Cray YMP: 2.7 GF, 8 proc. Convex: C2 mini-super. Ardent: Graphic Super. Microsoft: Windows 3, Excel, Word. AT&T Transatlantic Fiber. NSFNET: T1 backone. Pixar: "Tin Toy" Oscar. 1988
1989 1.6 Mt/chip Intel 486 1.6 Mtrans.  Cray Computer: Cray3 (last) Maxis: SimCity Adobe: Photoshop MCI, Compuserve: email. 1989
1990   CERN establishes HTML Thinking Machines CM2 SIMD: 14 GF, 64K? PE Nintendo GameBoy;Windows 3.1 Archie, Gopher, WAIS services. 1990
1991   WWW Linux Introduced. Motorola: 68040 1.2 Mtrans. IBM PowerPC. Go: PenPoint. 3-1/2" Diskette. NSF backbone: T3. one TB/month, 100 countries, 600Khosts, 5K networks. NSF accepts firms. PGP for email. 1991
1992     SQL Standard. WWW. One Million hosts. Internet Society. 1992
1993   Mosaic Browser Mosaic Browser release UofI NCSA. Apple: Newton w/50K sales. Casio Zoomer. Doom. Wired Magazine Vol 1. 1993
1994   Intel: Pentium Beowulf: COTS scalability standard Windows NT Yahoo founded. Netscape.  Pixar: Toy Story, first animated feature film 1994
1995 In your pocket Fujitsu National Wind Tunnel: 100 Gflops Palm: Pilot PDA i. Microsoft: Windows 95.  100 Mbps Ethernet. Apache Web Server 1.  DVD intro 1995
1996 1000s of web services form founded Java 1.1 Intel ASCI Red, Sandia: 1.45 TF pk, 7.2 Kproc Palm Pilot s. fouded. 1996
1997   Pister: WSN Proposal.   1997
1998   Rio Digital Audio Player (DAP) 1 Gbps Ethernet. Dust aka Wireless Sensor Nets proposal & RF breadboard. 1998
1999   Creative Labs Nomad DA). BlackBerry: pocket email service. 802.11: 11 Mbps 1999
2000   iRiver Player DAP. Apache Web Server 2. IBM zSeries 900 (64 bit 360). 2000
2001   Berkeley Mote: wireless sensor networks class Intel Itanium Microsoft: XP. Apple: iPod plaform intro. Berkeley Mote. Ember founded WSN. 2001
2002   NEC Earth Simulator: 41 TF Treo: phones & PDAs Dust Networks: WSN 2002
2003   AMD: Opteron 64-bit X86   10 Gbps Ethernet 803802.11: 54 Mpbs. 2003
2004   Intel: Extended Memory Architecture    2004
2005   AMD Opteron Multicore. IBM Bluegene: 102 TF, 131 Kproc.   2005
2006 1 TB/disk Microsoft: Vista DARPA Autonomous Vechicle Prize won by Stanford 2006
2007   100 millionth iPod. iPhone intro. 2007
2008     2008
2009     2009
2010     2010
285 38 28 29 41 47 21 26 37 18