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This document is for Xerox internal use only




This document is for Xerox internal use only

Table of Contents


Alto Non-programmer's Guide                                                                                                                         1

Bravo Manual                                                                                                                                                           27

Markup User's Manual                                                                                                                                          59

Draw Manual                                                                                                                     73

DDS Reference Manual                                                                                                                                         103

FTP Reference Manual                                                                                                                                           115


This handbook contains documentation for all the standard Alto services intended for use by non-programmers. It is divided into six sections, separated by heavy black dividers:

The Alto Non-programmer's Guide, which has most of the general information a non-programmer needs.

The Bravo manual, which tells you how to deal with documents containing text on the Alto.

The Markup and Draw manuals, which tell you how to add illustrations to documents. Section 10 of the Non-programmer's Guide is an overview on illustrations.

Finally, two reference manuals, one for the DDS filing service, and one for the FTP service which transports files between machines. These manuals supplement the introductory information on these two services in the Non-programmer's Guide.

If you are new to the Alto, start at the beginning of the Non-programmer's Guide. Read the first four sections there, and then the first two sections of the Bravo manual. After that, you should be able to find what you need by looking at the tables of contents, and browsing through the rest of the material. If you have trouble, don't hesitate to ask an expert for help.





Alto Non-programmer's Guide

Table of Contents

1.       Introduction                                                                                                                                                 2

2.      Getting started                                                                                                                                             2

3.      The Executive                                                                                                                                               5

3.1   Correcting typing errors                                                                                                                           5

3.2   Starting a service                                                                                                                                          5

3.3   Aborting                                                                                                                                                         5

4.      Files                                                                                                                         6

4.1   Naming conventions                                                                                                 6

4.2   File name patterns                                                                                                     6

5.      Recovering from disasters                                                                                          8

5.1   Reporting problems                                                                                                   9

6.      Keeping up to date                                                                                                    10

7.      More about files                                                                                                        11

7.1   Version numbers                                                                                                       11

7.2   DDS                                                                                                                          11

7.3 Copy                                                                                                                           13

7.4 Dump and Load                                                                                                          13

7.5 CopyDisk                                                                                                                    14

8.      Communicating with Maxc                                                                                         15

8.1   Chat                                                                                                                          15

8.2 About Maxc                                                                                                                16

8.3   Maxc files                                                                                                                  16

8.4 Hardcopy on Maxc                                                                                                      17

8.5   Archiving                                                                                                                  18

8.6   Messages                                                                                                                   18

9.        File transfers                                                                                                            21

10.      Pictures                                                                                                                  23

11.   Documentation and software distribution                                                                  25

1.      Introduction

This document is intended to tell you what you need to know to create, edit and print text and pictures on the Alto. It doesn't assume that you know anything about Altos, Maxc or any of the other facilities at Parc.

You will find that things are a lot clearer (I hope) if you try to learn by doing. This is especially true when you are learning to use any of the services which use the display. Try out the things described here as you read.

Material in small type, like this paragraph, deals with fine points which can be skipped on first reading (and perhaps on subsequent readings as well).

I would appreciate comments on this guide. In particular, I would like to know what you found to be confusing or unclear, as well as anything which you found to be simply wrong.

2.    Getting started

To do anything with an Alto, you must have a disk pack. This is a circular, yellow or white object about 15 inches in diameter and 2 inches high. Your secretary can tell you how to obtain a new one from the stock kept by your organization. The most common source is the yellow cabinet in the Maxc room (room 1153 on the first floor). Go straight through the first room, and you will find the cabinet in the second room, in the far left corner. When you take a disk, be sure to write your name on the logging form provided for the purpose, together with the serial number of the disk pack, which you will find on its bottom.


The next step is to get the disk initialized with copies of all the programs you will need to use.          Here is how to do this:

Go to the first Maxc room (room 1153 on the first floor; this is the room you just went through to get your disk pack). There you will find a rack containing (among other things) a disk pack labeled BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK, and an Alto which has two disk drives, each with four square lights, a white switch and a slanted plastic window. Take this BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK and load it into the drive labeled 0. You do this as follows:

The drive should have the white switch in the LOAD position, and the white LOAD light should be lit. Open the door by pulling down on the handle. Put in the disk by holding it flat, with the label facing you, and pushing it gently into the drive until it stops. Then gently close the door and push the white switch to RUN. The white LOAD light will go out, and after about a minute the yellow RUN light will go on. The disk is now loaded and ready to go. If anything else happens, you need help.

Now start the Alto. This is done by pushing the small button on the back side of the keyboard, near the thick black cable. Pushing this button is called booting the Alto. It resets the machine completely, and starts it up working on the disk you have just loaded. After you boot the machine, it will tell you at the top of the screen what it thinks the state of its world is, and then it will print a ">" about halfway down the screen. When the screen looks like that, anything you type will be read by the Executive, whose basic job is

to start up the service you want to run. There is a section on the Executive later in this document. For now, you will find everything you need to know right here.

You are going to use a service called CopyDisk, which copies everything on the main disk (which you just loaded) onto another disk which you will load into the disk drive labeled 1. This copying erases anything which is already on the disk in disk drive 1, so you should be very careful not to copy onto a disk which has anything you want to keep. Load your new disk into the disk drive labeled 1, doing just what you did to load the BASIC


Now type

>Copy DiskC3.

The CR stands for the carriage RETURN key on the keyboard. In this and later examples, what you type is underlined in the example, and what the Alto types is not.. On the screen, of course, there won't be any underlining. It doesn't matter whether you capitalize letters or not; the capitalization in this          manual is chosen to make reading easier.

The CopyDisk service will start up and ask you some questions, which you answer as follows:

Copy from: DP0a                             the digit zero, not the letter 0

Copy to: DP1CL

Check after copying: Yes

Copy from DPO to DP1 with checking on [ confirm ] Yes

Now CopyDisk will copy the contents of the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK onto your new disk pack. This takes about two minutes. While it is running, it records its progress in the two numbers near the top of the screen: they have to count up to 406 twice. When it is done, it will ask you "Do you want to make another copy of the original disk?" Answer No, and CopyDisk will return to the Executive, which will type its ">" character, meaning that it is waiting for further instructions.

Now you can take both disks out of the machine. Before you do, you should tell the Executive that you are finished,                                    by typing


You will see that after a couple of seconds the screen goes blank and starts to display a white square that jumps around. This is an indication that the memory test program is running properly; an Alto should always be left in this state when it is not being used.

Now take out both disks, by pushing the white switch on each drive to LOAD. The yellow READY light should go out, and about 25 seconds later the white LOAD light should go on. Now you can open the door (aeainst a slight resistance) and remove the disk. Put the

BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK                          back in the rack where you found it.

If the Alto in room 1153 is broken or unavailable, you can do a CopyDisk from one standard Alto to another; the procedure for doing this is described in section 7.5. Since it is a little more complicated than the method just given, a novice should use it only as a last resort.


Before doing anything else, put a label on the new disk with your name, and any other identifying information you like. Now you can take the new disk to any Alto, load it in, boot the machine by pushing the button on the back of the keyboard, and start working.


When you do this, if you look at the information printed at the top of the screen just after you do the boot, you will see that it says

--- OS Version x/x --- Alto #xxx --- NoName --- Basic Non-programmer's Disk --‑

This is because your new disk is an exact copy of the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK, which has no owner, and owner and disk name information got copied along with everything else. To give the disk your own name as owner, you should type


to the Executive. It will ask you whether you want the "long installation dialogue"; answer No. When it asks you for your name, type in your Maxc account name, followed by a CR. When it asks you for a disk name, choose a suitable one and type that in, again followed by a CR. Next it will ask you whether you want to give your disk a password. If you do this, the Alto will ask you for the password every time you boot it, and won't let you do anything until you provide

it correctly. This provides a modest level of security for the information on your disk. If you do give your disk a password, it is best to use your Maxc password, since the Alto will then know it and use it automatically whenever you communicate with Maxc. Don't forget the password, since there Js no simple way to find out what it is, and you will need an expert to get access to anything on your disk.

There will be a pause for a few seconds, and then the Executive will come back (If you assigned a password to your disk, you will be asked for it first). Now your name is installed on the disk, and the system will display it near the top of the screen whenever the Executive is in control, and will put it on the cover page of anything you print.

3. The Executive

This is the service to which you are typing right after a boot, and whenever any other service finishes its job. It has two display areas on the screen, a small one of six lines at the top, and a large one of about 20 lines in the middle. When you are talking to it, your typing and its responses appear in the large area. Whenever you call another service, the large area is erased, and the command you gave to call the other service appears at the bottom of the small area. In between the two areas, the Executive displays a clock and some other useful status information: the versions of the Executive and the operating system, the owner name and disk name installed on the disk, and the serial number of the Alto you are using.

3.1 Correcting typing errors

When you are typing at the Executive and you make a mistake, there are a few special keys you can type to correct the mistake. The BS (backspace) key erases the last character you typed. The DEL key cancels the command you were typing completely; it prints "XXX", and then starts a new line with a fresh ">" character.

3.2 Starting a service

As we said before, the Executive is for starting up other services which do the work you want done. To start a service called Alpha, you just type

>Al phagi

It doesn't matter whether you type in capitals, lower case, or a mixture of the two. If the service needs some other information about what to do, you type that after the name of the service. For example, there is a service to type out a document on the screen. Suppose you want to type out the document called "Notes".     You just say

>Type Notes

The Executive won't ever do anything until you type the final CR; if you change your mind, just type DEL to cancel the command any time before you type the CR.

3.3 Aborting

You can usually stop what is going on and get back to the Executive by holding down the left-hand SHIFT key and striking the blank key in the lower right corner of the keyboard (called the SW AT key; on an Alto 2 it's in the upper right corner). If this doesn't work, you can push the boot button.

If you push the SWAT key while holding down both CTRL and SHIFT, you will find yourself talking to a service called Swat which is of no interest to non-programmers. Usually no harm is done if this happens; you can get back to what you were doing before by typing PC (control-P; hold down the CTRL key and type P).

4. Files

The Alto stores on your disk all of the material you are working on (text and pictures), as well as all the programs which provide the various services described here. The named unit of storage on the disk is called a file. Each different document you handle will be stored on its own file. The facilities for identifying files are not ideal, but you will get used to them after a while.                           Better facilities are the subject of current research.

A file is identified by its name, which is a string of letters (upper and lower case can be used interchangeably), digits, and any of the punctuation characters "+-.!$". A file name can have two parts, which are called the main name and the extension., they are separated by a period. For example, "Alto.Manual" is a file name, with main name "Alto" and extension "Manual". File names cannot have blanks in them, or any punctuation characters except the ones just mentioned. A file name must not have more than 39 characters; most people don't notice this restriction.

A file name can also have a version number, which is a number that comes at the end of the name, preceded by an exclamation point: for example, "Alto.Manual!4" is version 4 of the file Alto.Manual.    Version numbers are discussed in detail in section 7.

4.1 Naming conventions

It is important to name your files in some systematic way, using the extension to tell what kind of file it is, and the main name to identify it. For instance, useful extensions might be Memo, Letter, Note, Figure, Calendar. If you are a secretary keeping material for several people on one disk, you can stick the person's initials in front of the extension, e.g. BWLmemo, JGMmemo etc. If you don't have anything specific in mind, it is customary to make the extension the same as the name of the service which creates the file, e.g.

Report.bravo for a document which doesn't have any special                                 properties, and is written
using Bravo.

The Alto doesn't care whether you capitalize letters in file names or not (i.e. ALPHA and alpha and aLpHa refer to the same file), but it is a good idea to use capitalization to make names more readable. This is especially useful when a name consists of more than one

word, since blanks are       not allowed in file names: e.g., TripReport or MasterList.

4.2 File name patterns

The Executive provides some simple facilities for handling files. First of all, it allows you to name a group of files by using file name patterns containing the magic characters "*" and "#". The "*" character stands for any string of characters. For example, the pattern

"*.memo*" stands for all the files which have the extension "memo", and the pattern "*.BWL*" stands for all the files which have BWL as the first three characters of the extension. The "#" stands for any single character; for instance, "###.memo" stands for all the files which have a three character main name and the extension "memo". If you are

curious to see what a pattern expands into, you can type Xc to get                    it expanded.

If you type a file name or a pattern to the Executive, and then type a TAB, it will give you a list of all the files    whose names start with that name.                                                                                              So, for example, typing

will get you a list of all files which have an extension starting with the characters BWL. You can get other kinds of lists of file names using the DDS service described later, but this is a useful quick and dirty facility.

Another useful thing to know is this: if you are in the process of typing a file name to the Executive, and you type ESC, it will add as many characters as it can to complete a file name. If you type "T', it will give you a list of all the files which start with what you have already typed; you can then go on and finish the file name.

Here is a summary of magic characters for getting file names expanded:

ESC     completes the file name if possible; if not, completes as much as it can, and flashes the

TAB     shows you all the file names which match what you have typed since the last blank, and
erases what you typed.

like TAB, but doesn't erase anything.

Xc        retypes the command line with all file name patterns replaced by the list of file names they
expand to.

There are two mme simple commands for dealing with files. To delete a file, or a group of files, type

>Delete Fl F2 ..CR

Warning: once you have deleted a file, you cannot get it back. Proceed with caution. If there is more than one version of a file, the one with the lowest version number gets deleted.

To get the contents of a text file printed on the screen, type


If the contents won't fit on the display, the Alto will show you as much as will fit, then ask if you want to see more. If you do, just type a space; if you want to stop, type "n" for no.

When the Executive is running, it displays two lines of status information near the top of the screen. Included in this information is the amount of space which is left for storing files. This space is measured in disk pages; it takes about 5 disk pages to store one page of text. It is prudent to keep at least 150 disk pages available; if your disk has fewer, you should delete some files, perhaps after sending them to Maxc for archiving (see sections 8.5 and 9).

At this point you know enough to use Bravo to begin creating and editing text. Bravo is described in its own manual. You should start reading the Bravo manual, and not try to continue with this guide until you have become familiar with the material in the first two sections of the Bravo manual. The remainder of this guide contains more information about the Alto which you won't need on the first day, but will probably want in the first week.

5. Recovering from disasters

There are various ways in which your Alto disk can become damaged. If this does happen, the procedures described in this section will almost always allow you to recover the disk, or at worst will let you copy files from the sick disk to a healthy one. It is probably a good idea to get some help with this if you are not experienced.

Here are the symptoms of trouble:

You can't boot the disk and get to the Executive.

You are out of disk space, but you think you should have plenty; in other words, some disk space has apparently gotten                                                                              lost.

You get an error message from some service which says something about disk errors or file errors, and perhaps recommends that you should run the Scavenger.

You hear a funny buzzing noise from the disk for a couple of seconds, after which the service you are using breaks in some way.

It may be that the problem is caused by an incompatibility between the disk drive on which your disk pack was written, and the disk drive on which you are trying to use it. This is a likely cause of your problems only if you have been moving the pack from one machine to another, and if you notice that it works properly on some machines, but not on others. If your problem is caused by disk incompatibility, the procedures described below won't do you much eood. Instead, you should report the problem to the hardware maintenance staff, so that the offending disk drive can be realigned, and make yourself a new disk pack on a machine known to be in alignment_ You can transfer files from the old pack to the new one using the procedure described in section 6.

The first step is to run a service called Scavenger.       If your disk is healthy enough to let you
boot and use the Executive, you can just invoke the Scavenger by typing


If it isn't, you can hold down the BS key and the top two blank keys, and press the boot button (keep the keys down until you see a fuzzy cursor in the center of the screen; this can take up to 5 seconds). This will get you a copy of the Scavenger over the Ethernet; after the cursor appears, it takes about 15 seconds more for the procedure to complete. If this doesn't work, hold down just the BS key and press the boot button; this should give you the dancing white square of the memory diagnostic. If it doesn't, either your Alto's Ethernet connection is broken, or your Alto has not been updated with the latest microcode (the latter is unlikely after 1/1/77). Either find another Alto without these problems, or load in a disk which is still in good shape, invoke the Scavenger, and then unload the good disk and load your sick one. The Scavenger will ask you whether you want to change disks, and give you a chance to do so if you say yes. Then it will ask you if it can alter your disk to correct errors; say yes.

The Scavenger will now work for about a minute. As it runs, it may ask you whether it is OK to correct "read errors". If they are "transient" errors, answer Yes fearlessly; if they are "permanent" errors, it is best to ask for advice from an expert. When the Scavenger is done, it will tell you what it found. If it has succeeded in making your disk healthy, you can go about your work. If it has deleted some files whose contents you value, read the description of Extract below. After you have retrieved anything which interests you from the debris, delete the file Garbage.$ which the Scavenger leaves around. It is a good idea to go through this scavenging procedure once a month or so, just to keep your disk in good shape.

If things are still in bad shape (i.e., you can't boot and run the Executive), the next step is to boot again, this time with the BS key and the top blank key held down. This should get you a fresh copy of the operating system, which will ask you whether you want to Install. You should say Yes, and go through the Install procedure described in section 2. If all goes well, you will then find yourself talking to the Executive and can proceed normally.

If this doesn't work, there is one more step to try. Boot again, this time with BS and the middle blank key held down. This should get you the FTP service described in section 9; use it to transfer the files <Alto> and <Alto>SysFontal from Maxc. Then boot the Scavenger as described above and run it again. If this fails, you should consult an expert. If no expert is available, you can boot FTP again, and use it to transfer files from your broken disk to Maxc or to a clean disk on another Alto (made using the procedure described in section 2).

The Scavenger leaves all the stuff which it wasn't able to put into a recognizable file on a file called Garbage.$, and it leaves a readable record of everything it did on another file called ScavengerLog (unless it tells you that you have a beautiful disk). There are two kinds of entries in ScavengerLog: names of files removed from the directory or otherwise modified, and names of file paees which were put into Garbage.$. Such pages are identified by the serial number of the file, the page number of the page, and the number of the page in the Garbage.$ file. The other ScavengerLog entries allow you to find the serial number of a file which was smashed; the serial number is printed as two or three numbers separated by semi-colons.

To retrieve some pages from a smashed file called Alpha, first look in ScavengerLog to find Alpha's serial number. Then look for a group of pages with that serial number which were moved to Garbage.$. Make a note of the page number p in Garbage.$ of the first such page, and the number of pages a. Then type:


>Extract Alpha p n--

and the desired pages will show up on Alpha. If it was a text file, you can now start Bravo, Get it in, and see what you can make of it.

5.1 Reporting problems

If your Alto itself is broken, obtain a trouble report form, fill it out, and leave it in the proper place; procedures for doing this depend on your location.

If you have trouble with Bravo, report it using the procedure in section 4.3 of the Bravo manual.

For other                            problems, consult your local expert.

lO                                                             ALTO NON-PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE

6. Keeping up to date

When new versions of the various services are released, they are normally announced by Maxc messages to all registered Alto users (see section 8.6). You can obtain a new version of a service called Alpha as follows:

Using FTP, attempt to retrieve <Alto> If this succeeds, leave FTP and type to the Executive


This will cause FTP to be invoked again, some files to be transferred from Maxc, and perhaps some other activity. When everything settles down, you will-have the new version.

If there is no <Alto>, retrieve <Alto>                                    This will be the new

version of the service.                      You don't have to        do anything else.

The best way to obtain a complete set of new software, and clean up your disk at the same time, is to obtain a fresh disk, initialize it from the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK as described in section 2, and then copy the files you want to keep from your old disk to the new one. To do this, put the new disk in an Alto and start the FTP service (section 9.).

Note the Alto's serial number, in the top right corner of the screen. Then put the old disk in another Alto, and use DDS (section 5.1) to mark all the files you want to keep. When you have done this, use the DDS Send to command, giving it the number of the Alto with the new disk in it, followed by a #: e.g., 236# (you can use the name instead, if you know it). This will call in FTP and start it sending over all the marked files to the new Alto.

An alternative way to make a BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK is to put the disk you want to initialize into an Alto, hold down the BS key and the top blank key, and push to boot button, as described in section 5. YOu will get a fresh version of the operating system, which will ask you if you want to Install. Say yes, ask for the "long installation dialogue", and say that you want to erase a disk. After a minute or so, you will have a clean disk with nothing on it except the Executive and FTP.                  Use FTP                         to retrieve the files

<Alto>        Then type


This will automatically transfer all the needed files from Maxc, and do any other necessary initialization. It takes about 20 minutes, and puts a significant load on Maxc, so use this procedure only when you can't find the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK. During the operation, there will be an automatic Install of the operating system; answer its questions appropriately. There will also be an automatic initialization of Bravo, and you should do a Quit when it is finished.

7. More about files

This section describes various things you will need to know about the Alto filing system.

7.1 Version numbers

A file name normally has a version number, which is a number that comes at the end of the name, preceded by an exclamation point: for example, "Alto.Manual!4" is version 4 of the file Alto.Manual.       The        basic rule for version numbers is this:

When you read a file, you get the one with the largest version number (the current version), unless        you include the version number you want in the file name.

When you write onto a file for which the current version is n, a new version n+1 is created, and becomes the current version, unless you include the version number in the file name. Furthermore, if version n-1 was around, it gets deleted, so that just two versions of the file are kept, the current one (with the largest version number)
      and the next earlier   version.

For example, if version 4 is the current version of the file Alto.Manual, there will probably be "Alto.Manuall4" and "Alto.Manual!3" around. If you write onto ''Alto.Manual" (e.g. by doing a Put from Bravo), "AltoManual!3" will disappear, and "Alto.Manuall5" will appear with the new information on it. "Alto.Manual!4" will still be around unchanged, so you can get the old version back from there if you need it. On the other hand, if you write onto "Alto.Manual!4", that file will be changed, and no new versions will be created.

If a file name doesn't have a version number, most services will not make any new versions, but will just write on the single version. Bravo is an exception; it always makes new versions, unless you have turned off versions at Install time, If you don't like the version feature, you can turn it off when you Install, by asking for the "long installation dialogue" and answering the questions appropriately. You can also change the number of versions which are kept in this way.

7.2 DDS

There is a service called DDS which allows you to keep track of your files and do various useful things with them. It is very easy to use, since most of the commands are self-explanatory. Be sure to start it up before going on with this section, and try out the various facilities as they are described.

Like Bravo, DDS needs to be initialized whenever you run the Scavenger, change your user profile, or find that it isn't behaving well. You do this just as for Bravo, by typing


to the Executive when you call it. DDS takes about 12 seconds to start up normally, and about 30 seconds if you are initializing it. Unlike Bravo, Dos remembers its state, and restores the previous state whenever you start it. You can also use initialization to force it back to the original initial state. To get out of DDs, point at the word Quit in the upper left corner of the screen and click YELLOW. Or you can just type SHIFT-SWAT.

Whenever Dos is doing something, and not listening to the keyboard, it displays an hourglass in the cursor. When you see the hourglass, you shouldn't expect any response to
        your actions: wait until it   goes away.

The DDS screen is divided into four windows. From top to bottom, they are: a command window, a control window, a filter window and a file window, which are separated by horizontal lines across the screen. The file window, at the bottom of the screen, is a Bravo-style window in which DDS will tell you various things about your files. The control and command windows contain menus: if you point to a menu word and click a mouse button, something suggested by that word will be done.

The bottom window starts out with a list of your files, which are initially sorted by the time they were written. This window has a scroll bar exactly like Bravo's. When the cursor isn't in the scroll bar, you can use it to select or mark files; commands like delete work on the marked files. The RED (left or top) mouse button marks a file, and BLUE (right or bottom) unmarks it. Marked files are displayed with an arrow in the left margin. If you hold down the button and move the cursor around (not too fast), all the files it passes over will be marked (or unmarked). You can also mark or unmark all the files which are displayed by moving the cursor to the right until it turns into a box containing the word ALL, and then using RED or BLUE.

Just above the files is the filter window. The two lines labeled Selspec and Context contain filters which decide which file names to display. A simple filter is just like a file name pattern in the Executive; it can include *'s and #'s, and it allows only file names which match the pattern to be displayed. To see all the files, you can just use * as the filter: note that the Selspec is initialized that way. You can also type more complicated filters, using and, or, not and parentheses: the Context is initialized to one such complex filter.

The two filters act together, and a file name must pass both of them to be displayed. The idea is that the Context can be used to filter out a lot of things you almost never want to see, and the Selspec can provide fine control. Note that the Context is initialized to suppress all      the standard system files.

To change a filter, point at the text of the filter with RED. It will turn black. Now type the new filter, which will replace the old one as soon as you type the first character. End your typing with CR or ESC; the latter appends a * to the filter. DDS will immediately update the file window to reflect the new filter. If you type DEL instead, the old filter will be restored.

Above the filter window is the control window, which contains a list of sort words and a list of show words. If you select sort words (with RED) they turn black and move to the left; you can unselect them with BLUE. Moving the cursor down into the file window will get the list of files sorted according to the sort words which are selected. Usually, you only want to select one sort word. The YELLOW button reverses the direction of sorting (indicated by the arrow next to the word) when it is clicked with the cursor over a sort word. DDS is initialized to sort on time written; that is why the sort word written is black. Try turning written off (with BLUE) and sorting on name. Now reverse the direction and sort again.       Now turn off name and sort on extension.

The show words say what properties of the file will be shown along with the name. You can turn options on with RED and off with BLUE, just like sort words. The file display won't be updated until you move the cursor down into the file window. The marked show word limits the display to marked files. Note that DDS is initialized with written and size (the number of disk pages in the file) turned on. Try some other show words.

Finally. at the top is the command window. Commands act on marked and filtered files only, and should be self-explanatory. A command must be confirmed with ESC or CR before it takes effect. Some commands take other parameters, which you should type before the ESC or CR. The typing appears in a black region just above the commands;

sometimes DDS will supply a default value, which you can override by typing something else.

You can mark some files, and then change the filters so that the marked files are no longer displayed; they will still be marked. They will not, however, participate in a command. If you later change the filters so that they are again displayed, they will still be marked, and now they will participate in a command.

Here is an example which illustrates several features: it deletes all the files whose names end in $ (these are usually the files on which Bravo leaves old versions of files you have edited, if you have file version numbers turned off). Point at the Selspec filter and click

RED; it will turn black. Now type j* Ca; this will display all the files whose names end with S. Now put the cursor in the file window, and use RED in the ALL bar on the right to mark all the files.   Finally, select the          delete command and type ESC.

There are many options for initializing DDS. They are all set up in a standard way in the user profile on the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK, but you can change them by editing the [DDS] section of the file Detailed instructions on how to do this can be found in the DDS reference manual, together with a lot of additional information about DDS itself. This manual appears as DDS.ears on the Maxc <AltoDocs> directory (see section 11), and can also be found at the back of the Alto User's Handbook.

7.3 Copy

To copy one file to another, e.g., Old to New, say

>Copy New 4- Old              don't leave out the spaces

The "4-" is to     remind you of the direction the copying is done.

7.4 Dump and Load

These services give you a way to package up a number of files into a single, so-called dump file. You can then transport the dump file around as a unit, and later recover one, a few, or all of the files from it. This is especially useful when you want to send a group of files to Maxc for storage or archiving.

To make a dump file, type

>Dump fl f2

Here "" is the name of the dump file: by convention it has the extension "dm." You can list as many files as you want to be dumped. Often the * feature of the Executive is useful here.

To get files back from a dump file, type


You will get a list of the files in and after each one you will be asked whether you want it loaded or not. If you leave out the /v all the files which don't already exist will be loaded; if you say /c instead, all the files will be loaded whether or not they are already on your disk.

7.5 CopyDisk

The simplest use of the CopyDisk service is copying the contents of one disk pack to another on an Alto equipped with two disk drives; it is described in section 2. CopyDisk can also copy the contents of a disk pack from one Alto to another over the Ethernet. To use it in this mode, you need two Altos; in the example below they are called Banjo and Flash. Put the disk you want to write onto into one Alto (Flash), and start CopyDisk. If you want to copy onto a blank disk, which won't have an Executive and therefore cannot be booted from, you can start CopyDisk by holding down the BS and ] keys, and pushing the boot button. After some delays, as described in section 5. the CopyDisk service will be running.

The first thing it does is to ask you "Copy from: ". Here you type the name of the Alto from which you want to copy, followed by a CR. If you don't know the name, you can type the serial number (displayed in the Executive"s status lines), followed by a #. The dialogue then proceeds as follows:

Copy from: Banjo

Copy to: DP0a-                                the digit zero, not the letter 0.

Check after copying: Yes

Copy from Banjo to DPO with checking on [ confirm ] Yes

Waiting on Ether ...

Next, go to the other Alto (Banjo), put in the disk you want to copy, start CopyDisk and proceed as follows:

Copy from: DPO—

Copy to: Flash

Check after copying: Yes

Copy from DPO to Flash with checking on [ confirm                       Yes

Now the copy should proceed. When it is done, the source Alto will ask "Do you want to make another copy of the original disk?". You can answer No, and it will return to the Executive. The target Alto will say "Waiting on Ether ...". and you can boot it and say Quit to the Executive.

8. Communicating with Maxc

Many uses of the Alto require you to communicate with Parc's large shared computer, which is called Maxc. To make any use of Maxc, you must first obtain a Maxc account and password; to do this, see the CSL laboratory manager's secretary.

Before trying to use Maxc from your Alto, you should first tell the Alto your Maxc account name and password. If you have given your Maxc account name to Install as the owner name for your disk, however, the Alto already knows it, and if you gave your Maxc password as your disk password, it knows that too and you can skip to section 8.1. Otherwise, you can give the necessary information by typing to the Executive:


The Login service will now ask you for your Maxc name and password. Type in each one in turn, ending each with a CR or space. Note that it assumes your Maxc acount name is the same as your disk owner name; if this is the case, you can just type CR to confirm it, and go on to give your password. If it isn't, type DEL, and then give the Maxc name you want to use. Once you have done this Login, your Alto will automatically identify you to Maxc whenever necessary. If you boot your Alto, it will forget this information, and you must Login again.

Note that the Login service only records your Maxc name and password; it does not connect you to Maxc. If you don't do a Login, both Chat and FTP will automatically ask you for the Login information when they first run, and will record it just as Login does.

If you wish, you can supply a password for your disk when you Install (see section 2). If you do this, you will have to type the password whenever you boot the Alto. but it will automatically be used as your Maxc password, unless you override it with a Login command. The password is stored on your disk in encrypted form, so that your Maxc password cannot readily by compromised to someone who paws around on your Alto disk.

8.1 Chat

You can use your Alto as a Maxc terminal through the Chat service. Just type >Chatfa

If all goes well, you will see the message "Connected to :", followed by some numbers, at the top of the screen, and a message from Maxe at the bottom of the screen. If Chat has trouble getting connected to Maxc, it will tell you its problem after trying for a few seconds. This usually means that Maxc is broken; you might try again in a few minutes.

If you have forgotten to Login to your Alto, Chat will ask you for your Maxc name and password. It will then record this information, just as though you had given it to Login, so that you won't have to supply it again unless you boot the Alto.

When Maxc types more than a screenful at you, it will pause after every screenful and "ring the bell", which causes Chat to display a large DING at the top of the screen. After you have had a chance to read the screen, striking any key on the keyboard will get Maxc

to produce the next screenful.                 If you type ahead to Maxc, this feature is suppressed.

Maxc has its own Executive, and a large array of services called subsystems. The next few subsections contain enough information about how to use Maxc to satisfy your routine needs.

Chat keeps a record of your conversation with Maxc on a file called Chat.scratchScript. You can read it with Bravo after a Chat session, just to see what happened, or perhaps to copy things out of it into other files, print it, or whatever.    There are two funny things about this    file which you need to know about

The file is not erased when you start a new conversation. Instead, the typescript of the new conversation starts at the beginning of the file and continues for as long as the conversation lasted. The end of the conversation is marked by the characters <_> after which you will see the remnants of the previous conversation.

The typescript file is only 20,000 characters long. If your conversation is longer than that, the
typescript will wrap around to the beginning. It is possible to make the file larger by editing the

[CHAT] section of the user profile (the file in                the obvious way.

8.2 About Maxc

Maxc has its own Executive and file system, which are thoroughly documented in the Tenex Exec Manual. That manual was written primarily for programmers, and contains a large amount of information not needed by casual users of Maxc. In the hope of keeping you from having to read the Tenex Exec Manual, the next few paragraphs contain a summary of basic procedures for dealing with Maxc.

In order to do anything useful on Maxc, you must be logged in. The details of this procedure will normally not concern you, since Chat will take care of them automatically. When you are finished with your Maxc session, however, you should log out by giving the command


to the Executive. (Note that Maxc types an "@" when it is listening for commands, just as the Alto types a ''>".) After a few seconds, you will get a farewell message from Maxc. Then you can exit from Chat and get back to the Alto Executive by typing SHIFT-SWAT (hold down the left-hand shift key and hit the blank key in the lower right corner of the keyboard).

If you expect to use Maxc again within a few minutes, you can save a little time and some Maxc resources by not logging out. This notifies Maxc that you expect to be back soon. If you don't return within a few minutes, Maxc will log you out automatically. If you don't expect to be back soon, it is considerate to log out, since you use up space on Maxc while you are logged      in.

8.3 Maxc files

Maxc has a file system somewhat like the Alto's, but the procedures for finding out about your Maxc files are rather cumbersome. You will want to store files on Maxc for several reasons (all of           which are explained in more detail below)

so that other people can copy them easily, using the File Transfer service (see 9.);

so that others can obtain hardcopy easily, using the Ears subsystem on Maxc (see 8.4);

so that                   they can be archived on magnetic tape (see 8.5).

Maxc file names look very much like Alto file names, but they have one more part: a directory. Also, the version number is always present, and is preceded by a semi-colon rather than an   exclamation point. The format           is


Each Maxc user has a directory, named by his Maxc user name, and you can reference files in some other directory simply by prefixing the directory name to the file name, as illustrated. There is a protection system, not described here, which allows a user to control which other users can read or write his files. The usual setting of the protection, and the one you will get automatically if you don't say anything special, allows all Xerox users to read the file, but prevents anyone except the owner from writing it.

When you put a file onto Maxc, if there is already a file with the same name, the new file is added, with a version number one bigger than the old one, just as on the Alto when the file version number feature is enabled. However, old versions are never deleted automatically. When you reference a file, you get the one with the largest version number

if you don't specify the version                                   explicitly, just as on the Alto.

The ESC feature for completing a file name works on Maxc more or less as it does on the Alto.

You can list the names of your                           Maxc files with


If you want just the      files with a particular main name or extension, you can say
@Dir activitv.*gi or @Dir *.reportCR

but these are the only uses of * which will work. To list another user's directory, say @Dir <user>fl

You can get more detailed information about your files (length, date written, etc.) with

@Dir21               note the comma


If you want to print or otherwise manipulate this list, read the Chat typescript into Bravo and treat it like any    other piece                             of text.

You can delete one or several Maxc files, just as on the Alto, with

@Del fl f2

and *s will also work here, just as in the Dir subsystem described above. To delete all the old versions of your  files, say


answer the two questions Yes, and type a CR when you are asked for the "file group." It is a good idea to do this once a week or so, since old versions can pile up and waste a lot of space.

To find out how much space you are using on Maxc, type @Dskal

One Maxc page is equivalent to about five Alto pages.

8.4 Hardcopy on Maxc

If you have a file, say TripReport.ears, in "Ears" or "Press" format (see section 10 for an explanation of these formats), i.e., ready for printing, you can get it printed by typing @Ears TripReporta

If you want 6 copies, say

@Ears TrinRenort,a                    note the comma

@@Copies 6CL @@cji

This is mainly useful for printing files on other directories, which other people have left there to make it convenient for you to print them. If the extension isn't "ears", you have to type it as part of the filename.

You can get Bravo to produce an Ears file by using the E option in the Hardcopy command. You should give the file the extension "ears." Then you can send it over to Maxc using the File Transfer procedure described in section 9.

8.5 Archiving

Maxc provides facilities for archiving files onto magnetic tape, where the cost of storing them is negligible. You can get an archived file back within a day with no effort, and within a few minutes at the cost of some inconvenience.

To archive one or several files, type

@Arch f filel file2 ...--CR

The files will be archived onto tape within a day or two. After this has been done, they will be deleted from the disk automatically, and you will get a message notifying you that the archiving has been done.

Maxc keeps track of your archived files in an archive directory which you can list exactly like your regular Maxc directory, using the Interrogate command rather than the Directory command. If the listing is of just one file, Maxc will ask you whether or not you want it retrieved from the tape. If you say yes, the file will appear on your disk within a day, and you will get a message to that effect. If you need the file right away, see Ed Taft or Ron Weaver.

8.6 Messages

You can send and receive messages on Maxc using two subsystems called Sndmsg and Msg. To send a message, type


and fill in the To:, Cc:, Subject: and Message: as they are requested. You can edit the message with the following control characters; this editing is rather clumsy, however, so you should type the message as carefully as you can.

Ac          to backspace one character (not BS, unfortunately)

Qc        to delete a whole line

Rc             to retype the current line

Sc             to retype the whole item

DEL        to abort the whole thing

CR          to terminate everything except the Message

Zc             to terminate the Message.

After Zc type a CR. Maxc will report success as it sends the message to each destination. You can make a list of people on a file, say Csl.msg, and send a message to all of them by

typing BC CSI.MS2C-- as part of the To: or Cc: lists. There is a set of useful destination lists on the <Secretary> directory; they all have the extension "msg", so you can get a list of them with

@Dir <secretary>*.msga

To get on a distribution list, send a message to Jeanette Jenkins.

You can copy a file, say Meeting.notes (perhaps prepared with Bravo, but don't use any formatting, and put in carriage returns yourself, rather than relying on Bravo's automatic

ones), into the message by typing Bc F Meeting.notes-C1-1.

To read your mail, type @msgCR

Soon Maxc will type a summary of your newly arrived mail, and then a <- symbol. Notice that the messages are numbered. You are now talking to Ivlsg; it has a rather complicated command language which you can learn about by typing "?" after the <- symbol. Here is enough information to get by on.

To see message n, type

<-Type message

To see the next message, type LF; to see the previous message, type BS. To see the current message again, type T ESC. If you want to save the message, after it has been typed, Get the Chat typescript into Bravo.

You can delete a message by typing


>Delete message

The current message can be deleted with >Delete message ESC

It is a good idea to delete messages after reading them, unless they reflect pending business. By keeping your message file short, you will find that Maxc responds much faster, and also you will be able to get a quick summary of pending business by listing the message headers (From:, Date:, Subject:). To do this, type

<-Headers of messages MCR

where for M you can say

All messages

Not examined messages

From nameC-1

Subject texta CR


To answer the message you just typed out, type <-Answer message ESC

Text Box: can say
a copy to yourself as a rP"ord; the message.
It will ask you where to send the answer, and you

From to send the answer to the sender, with All to send the answer to everyone who got

You can also get into Sndmsg from Msg by typing


When you have finished sending the message, you will be talking to Msg again.

Finally, two useful things:

To stop Msg in the middle of typing the response to any command, type Oc; if it was waiting at the end of a page, you will also have to strike another key.

To exit from Msg, type: <-Exita

Text Box: out your message file by typingEvery now and then you should clear <-Move All messages

to file 8Dec75.msg.a [new file] -C-ii                 using the current date in the file name

@Arch f 8Dec75.msga

You can always retrieve the messages if you need them. If you do want to read messages from a file like the one created with the Move just described, you can tell Msg to read that file by typing

<-Read from file 8Dec75.msga [old version]cg‑

9. File transfers

You can transfer files from one Alto to another, or from an Alto to Maxc, using the File Transfer Program, or FTP for short. Like DDS, this program has a fairly elaborate set of features, which are described in its manual. You can print this manual from <AltoDocs>Ftp.ears, and you will also find it at the end of the Alto User's Handbook. This section tells you enough about FTP to take care of all ordinary needs.

After starting FTP, you will see three windows on the screen; from top to bottom, they are the server window, the user window, and the Chat window. Most interactions with FTP involve only the middle window; note the blinking vertical bar there, which shows where you can type. The first step is to type the name of the machine you want to talk to. Usually this is Maxc, and you should just type


In a second or two you should get back a response like

Maxc Pup Ftp Server 1.06 30-Jun-76

When Maxc is broken, there will be delay of about a minute, before FTP gives up; you can give up sooner by striking the middle blank key (opposite CR). If you want to talk to another Alto, you can type its name, if you know it, or its number followed by a #:


Text Box: or*326#C-a

A similar message should come back. Before doing this, you should make sure that the other Alto is running FTP, since your Alto will only wait one minute for it. You can get a list of all the Alto 'owners, names and numbers from the Maxc file <System>Pup-Network.txt.

Now you can retrieve a file from the remote machine (Maxc, or the other Alto), or store a file into it. To retrieve, you type

*R etrieve remote file Example as local file Exampie_cR

As in the Executive, you can just type enough of the command to identify it uniquely, and then a space; unlike the executive, FTP supplies the rest of the command name automatically. You then type the Maxc (or remote Alto) file name, folowed by a space. FTP will then suggest a local name for the file. If you like it, you can just type CR. Otherwise, you can type some other name, as in the following example:

*R etrieve remote file Example  as local file Dummy-C1-

During the transfer, the cursor will flip its two black squares back and forth every time it transfers a block of the file, so you can tell how it is progressing from the frequency of flips.

To store a file on your local Alto into the remote machine, you type

*S tore local file Example  as remote file Example-CB‑


*S tore local file Example  as remote file Dummy—

again depending on whether or not you want to use a different name.

You can do as many Retrieve and Store commands as you want. When you are done, type *p_uit

and you will be back talking to the Executive.

If you are not logged in, and are talking to Maxc rather than another Alto, FTP will ask you for your Maxc user name and password when you do the first Retrieve or Store. Like Chat, it will save the information so that you won't have to provide it again until you boot the Alto.

If you intend to do a lot of transfers to a Maxc directory other than your own, you can give the command

*Dir ectory OtherDira

to make <OtherDir> the default directory for Maxc names; this saves typing <OtherDir> in front of each name.                           You can also do

*Con nect to directory OtherDir         Password xxxxx2-

which works just like the Maxc Connect command. The password is not displayed when you type it, of course.

Text Box: *.memo_c_EYou can get a list of the Maxc files which match a file name pattern with the command *List

which works just like the Maxc Directory command. It is quite slow, however, and there is no way to interrupt it except to SHIFT-SWAT out of FTP.

At the bottom of the screen is the Chat window, in which you can talk to Maxc exactly as you do with Chat. You can move the cursor down into the Chat window by striking the bottom unmarked key (the SWAT key); to get back to the middle window, strike the middle unmarked key (on an Alto 2, the highest and lowest

unmarked keys on the right, respectively). In the Chat window, after typing Maxca, you can Login to Maxc and do whatever you want. This window doesn't offer all the conveniences of Chat itself, but at times it is nice to be able to switch very quickly between transferring files and giving commands to Maxc.

When you start FTP on an Alto, it is normally ready to act as a remote machine or server, in addition to accepting commands as described above. If you don't say anything special, it will allow any other machine to retrieve files, and to store new files, but not to overwrite an existing file. You can change these defaults by starting FTP with


where X can be: Nothing to prevent any such transfers; Protected to allow retrieving only, but no writing; Overwrite to allow an existing file to be overwritten. Any server activity is reported in the server windown at the top of the screen.

10. Pictures

There are currently three major services for drawing pictures on the Alto:

Markup: good for pictures involving images, free-hand drawing or painting. Markup is also useful for adding pictures to a text document produced by Bravo; these pictures can come from Draw or Sil, or they can be drawn by Markup itself.

Draw:       good for pictures which just contain lines, curves and text;

Sil:           good for forms and pictures with only horizontal and vertical lines.

At the moment only the first two are suitable for general use. Each has its own manual, copies of which can be obtained by printing <AltoDocs>Markup.ears and Draw.ears (see section 8.4). You will also find these        manuals in the Alto User's Handbook.

You can compose the various parts of a document with Bravo, or with any of these picture-drawing services, and then put together the complete document with a service called PressEdit. This service can combine two kinds of files which describe pages of a document: Press files and Ears files. Markup, Draw and Sil can all produce Press files, and Bravo can produce Ears files. You will find an explanation of how to use PressEdit in

the next section.     Warning. the resulting Press file will be about as big as all the input files;
be sure you have enough disk space.

The input to PressEdit must be a Press or Ears file. Markup automatically produces Press files, but the other services require extra steps to make the right kind of file for PressEdit.

For Bravo, use the Ears option on the Hardcopy command to get an Ears file. This file will be on your Alto disk, like any other file. If the Bravo file was named "Example.bravo", the Ears file should be named "Example.ears".

For Draw, use the Press command to get a Press file.

For Sil, use the Nppr service to get a Press file, which is always named "". You should rename it to something reasonable.

In all these cases, the resulting Press or Ears file cannot be converted back into Bravo, Draw or Sil form. You should therefore do all the work you can in these systems before making a Press or Ears file.

The output of PressEdit is a Press file, and you can do the following things with it:

1)  Print it on the Ears printer from your Alto, by typing to the Executive >Print Example.pressCE

Currently this is done through Maxc, and takes a while. if you type /s immediately after a file name, the file will be saved on your Maxc directory in Ears format. if you type n/c before a file name, n copies will be printed.          Thus

>Print 5/c

2)  Send it to Maxc with FTP, and          then print it on the Ears printer by typing
@Ears Example.pressal

When doing this, you can make several copies if you wish, as described in section 8.4. In addition, you will be asked if you "want to save the Press conversion?" You should do this if you expect that a number of other people will want to print the file later, since it requires quite a lot of Maxc resources to print a Press file. If you do save the Press conversion, you will be asked for a file name; choose the name Example.ears if the Press file was The resulting Ears file can then be printed by typing

@Ears Example.earsat

with much less Maxc computing. If you save the Ears file, you should delete or archive the Press file, so as not to consume too much Maxc file space. Note: you can also save        the Ears file with         the Print service, as described earlier.

3)  Send it to the 3100 Alto in room 2064 and print it on the 3100 there. The advantage of doing this is that pictures made by Draw will be much prettier; the drawback is that the 3100 is slower, and the procedure for printing is only semi-automatic. To print on the 3100, you should start FTP on your Alto, go to the 3100 Alto, run FTP there, and retrieve the Press file from your Alto. Then follow the instructions in the notebook labeled Press to get your file printed.

4)  Look at it with Markup, and possibly make changes. Read the Markup manual to find out how to do this. You can make substantial changes to the document with Markup, but the procedure is rather laborious, and you cannot transfer any of the changes back to the Bravo, Draw or Sil files you started with. Therefore, it is best to get all the pieces of the document into final form before assembling it and marking it up.

The use of PressEdit for assembling documents has one major advantage: the resulting complete document can be left of Maxc for printing by anyone who needs a copy. If you are producing a document for large-scale printing outside, on the other hand, it is probably easier to assemble it   by hand than to go through all this ritual.

10.1 PressEdit

To convert an Ears     file foo.ears to a Press file

>PressEdit    F foo.earsa

To extract pages 3 and 17 from a Press             file, and put them in

>PressEdit F      3 17Cg

To extract pages 5 through         12 from foo.ears,     and put them in
>PressEdit 4- foo.ears 5 to 12CR

To add fonts Logo24 and Helvetical4 to    

>PressEdit Logo24/f Helvetical4/fLE

Here the arguments on the right hand side of the arrow may be given in any order.

To make a blank, one-page Press file containing all three faces of TiniesRontan10: >PressEdit      Bla     F                                Ti mesR oman 10/f                 TimesRomanl0i/f

TimesRoman 1 Ob/fgl

To append to the end of all the Press files with names,, etc:

>PressEdit f fie3-*.presses

Cautiorr. when you combine files with PressEdit, try not to use different sets of fonts, or the same fonts in different orders. This will result in proliferation of font sets, making the file more bulky and creating other minor           sources of inefficiency.

11. Documentation and software distribution

Documentation for all the standard Alto software can be found on the Maxc <AltoDocs> directory. As a rule, each major piece of documentation appears as an Ears file which can be printed by the Ears subsystem on Maxc. Short documents are available on files with the extension "tty"; these can be copied from Maxc to your Alto and read with Bravo, or they can be printed with

@Corw foo.tty Ipt:cR [OK]

You can do

@Dir <AltoDocs>*.ears or *My

on Maxc to see what is available.

Current versions of all the standard Alto software are stored on Maxc in the <Alto> directory. The procedures for obtaining current versions are explained in section 6.



Bravo Manual

Table of Contents

Preface                                                                                                                      28

1. Introduction                                                                                                           29

2. Basic features                                                                                                          31

2.1 Moving around                                                                                                     31

2.2 Changing the text                                                                                                  32

2.3 Filing and Hardcopy                                                                                              34

2.4 Miscellaneous                                                                                                        36

3.   Formatting                                                                                                            37

3.1 Making pretty characters                                                           37
Looks during typing

3.2 Paragraphs                                                                        38

3.3 Formatting style                                                                   41

Section Headings

Leading Indenting Offsets

3.4 Forms                                                                             44

3.5 White space and tabs                                                              44

3.6 Page formatting                                                                   45
Page numbers


Multiple-column printing

Line numbers Headings

4.   Other things                                                                       50

4.1 Some useful features                                                               50

4.2 Windows                                                                         51

4.3 If Bravo breaks                                                                    52

4.4 Arithmetic                                                                        53

4.5 Other useful features                                                     54

Partial Substitution


Control characters

4.6 The user profile                                                                   56

4.7 Startup and quit macros                                                           57

4.8 Diablo and Ears hardcopy                                                57
Samples of standard fonts


This manual describes the Bravo system for creating, reading and changing text documents on the Alto. It is supposed to be readable by people who do not have previous experience with computers. You should read the first four sections of the Non-Programmers Guide to the Alto before starting to read this manual.

You will find that things are a lot clearer (I hope) if you try to learn by doing. Try out the things described here as you read.

Material in small type, like this, deals with fine points and may be skipped on first, or even second, reading.

I would appreciate any comments which occur to you while trying to use the manual. In particular, I would like to know what you found to be confusing or unclear, as well as anything which you found to be simply wrong.

This manual is written on the assumption that you have the user profile, fonts and other Bravo-related material from the BASIC NON-PROGRAMMER'S DISK. If this is not the case, some of the things which depend on that stuff will not work the same way.

There is a one-page summary of Bravo at the end of this manual. It is intended as a memory-jogger, not as a complete specification of how all the commands work.

Bravo was designed by Butler Lampson and Charles Simonyi, and implemented mainly by Tom Malloy, with substantial contributions from Carol Hankins, Greg Kusnick, Kate Rosenbloom and Bob Shur.

1. Introduction

Bravo is the standard Alto system for creating, editing and printing documents containing text. It can handle formatted text, but it doesn't know how to handle pictures or drawings; for these you should use Draw,                                                         Markup or Sil.

When you start up Bravo (do it now, by saying Bravo/ea- to the Executive), you will see two windows on the screen, separated by a heavy horizontal bar. The top one contains three lines with some useful introductory information; it is called the system window. The bottom one contains a copy of the material you are reading, which was put there because of the "/e" you typed to the Executive. If you had omitted the "/e", as you do when using Bravo normally, the bottom window would be empty, except for a single triangular endmark which indicates the end of a document. In the bar separating the two windows is the name of the document in the lower window.

As you do things in Bravo, the first two lines of the system window will give you various useful pieces of information which may help you to understand what is going on and to decide what you should do next. Usually, the top line tells you what you can do next, and the second line tells you what you just did, and whether anything went wrong in doing it. Make a habit of looking at these two lines while you are learning Bravo, and whenever you are unsure of what is happening.

No matter what is going on in Bravo, you can stop it and get back to a neutral state by hitting the DEL key. You can leave Bravo and get back to the Executive by typing QuitCR

The characters which you type (Q and CR) are underlined in this example; the characters which are not underlined are typed by Bravo. This convention is used throughout the manual. Notice that you only type the first character of the Quit command; this is true for all the Bravo commands.

Each Bravo window (except the top one) contains a document which you can read and change. Usually you read the document from a file when you start Bravo, and write it back onto a file after you have finished changing it. Later, you will find out how to do this (see section 2.3). It is possible to have several windows, each containing a document; this too is explained later on (see section 4.2).

Bravo is controlled partly from the keyboard and partly from the mouse, the small white object with three black buttons which sits to the right of the keyboard. As you push the mouse around on your working surface, a cursor moves around on the screen. Pushing the mouse to the left moves the cursor to the left, pushing the mouse up (away from you) moves the cursor up; and so forth. You should practice moving the mouse around so that the cursor moves to various parts of the screen.

The three buttons on the mouse are called RED (the top or left-most one, depending on what kind of mouse you have), YELLOW (the middle one) and BLUE (the bottom or right-most one). They have different functions depending on where the cursor is on the

screen and what shape it has.                     Don't push any buttons yet.

Mouse lore:

You will find that the mouse works better if you hold it so that it bears some of the weight of your hand.

If the cursor doesn't move smoothly when the mouse is moving, try turning the mouse upside down and spinning the ball in the middle with your finger until the cursor does move smoothly as the ball moves. If this doesn't help, your mouse is

broken; get it fixed.

You can pick the mouse up and move it over on your work surface if you find that it. isn't positioned conveniently. For instance, if you find the mouse running into the keyboard when you try to move the cursor to the left edge of the screen, just pick the mouse up and set it down further to the right.

2. Basic features

This section describes the minimum set of things you have to know in order to do any useful work with Bravo. When you have finished this section, you can read the other parts of the manual as you need the information.

2.1 Moving around

Move the cursor to the left edge of the screen and a little bit below the heavy black bar. Notice that it appears as a double-headed arrow. It will keep this shape as long as you stay near the left edge, in a region called the scroll bar. if you move it too far right, the shape will change.      Keep the cursor in the scroll bar for the moment.

Now push down the RED (top or left) button and hold it down. Notice that the cursor changes to a heavy upward arrow. This indicates that when you let the button go, the line opposite the cursor will be moved to the top of the window. Try it. This is called scrolling the document up.

Next push down the BLUE (bottom or right) button and hold it down. Now the arrow points down, indicating that when you let the button go, the top line on the screen will be moved down to where the cursor is. Try it. This operation takes a few seconds, so don't get impatient. Practice scrolling the document up and down until you feel comfortable with it. It is useful to know that if you don't move the mouse, scrolling with RED and BLUE are symmetrical operations: one reverses the effect of the other.

You may have noticed that the text on the screen doesn't fill up the window, but that more text appears when you scroll up. The reason for this is that in addition to space on the screen, Bravo needs space inside itself (in the Alto's memory) to display lines of text on the screen. When a line has only a few characters, it doesn't take up much internal space, but when it runs all the way across the page, like the lines in this document, it takes a lot of internal space. When Bravo runs out of internal space, it stops displaying text and leaves the rest of the window blank. You can tell that there is more text in the document (i.e., that you aren't seeing the end), because when Bravo gets to the end it displays a triangular endmark as the very last thing to mark the end. If you don't see the endmark at the bottom of the displayed text, you can be sure that there is more text in the document which isn't being displayed.

If you keep the cursor in the scroll bar, near the left edge, and hold down YELLOW (the middle mouse button), you will see the cursor change into a striped right-pointing arrowhead. Think of it as a thumb, and the entire left edge of the window as the pages of a closed book, corresponding to your whole document (not just to what is displayed). If you stick the thumbnail into the book and flip it open, you will find yourself someplace in the book. If the thumb is near the middle, you will be about in the middle. If it is all the way at the top, you will be at the beginning; if all the way at the bottom, you will be at the end.

The tip of the arrowhead acts like the thumbnail, and letting go of YELLOW is like flipping open the book. You will also see another striped arrow, enclosed in a box. This one is called the bookmark; it points to your current location in the document. After you let up YELLOW, if you hold it down again without moving the mouse, the thumbnail and the bookmark should coincide exactly, making a solid arrowhead; this happens because the thumbing operation moved the document exactly to the place indicated by the thumbnail. To move forward a little, push the thumbnail down a little below the bookmark and thumb again; to move back, push the thumbnail up a little above the bookmark. To get to the beginning, push the thumbnail up until the arrowhead overlaps slightly the horizontal bar

at the top of the window. Try thumbing your way through the document until you feel comfortable with it. Also try thumbing and then scrolling up and down.

2.2 Changing the text

In order to make a change in the text of your document, you have to: say where you want the change made, by making a selection;

say what you want done, by giving a command.

You always make the selection first, then give the command. If you change your mind about where you want the change made, you can always make another selection. Making a selection is just like pointing with a pencil: it doesn't have any effect on the document. Only commands can change the document. You never have to worry about getting rid of a selection, since it never does any harm. If you make a selection, and then give a command that doesn't require any selection, that is perfectly all right; the needless selection will be ignored.

You make selections by pointing with the mouse and pushing one of the buttons. To try this out, move the cursor into the region of the screen where the text of the document is displayed. Notice that the cursor is displayed as an arrow which points up and slightly to the left. Point the arrow at a character (any character) in the document, and click RED. The character you pointed at should be underlined; if it is, you have just selected it. If it

isn't, look nearby and see if some other character is underlined. if you find one, then that is the one Bravo

thought you were pointing at Experiment until you feel confident that you can point easily at characters.

You should note that each selection erases the previous one: there is only one selection at a time, and it is the most recent one. Also, you can make a selection at any time, except when you are in the middle of a command. Once you have started a command, you must either finish it normally, or abort it by striking DEL, before you can make another selection.

Something useful to know: if you hold RED down, you can move the cursor around and the selection will follow it. The selection won't freeze until you release RED (or move the cursor out of the text area).   Try this too.

Now try a selection using YELLOW instead of RED. Notice that instead of underlining a character, Bravo now underlines a whole word. A word is defined as consecutive letters and digits, or consecutive punctuation characters. For convenience, apostrophe is counted as a letter.

Also, a number containing a decimal point is a single word.

There is one more thing to learn about selecting text: how to select more than one character or one word. To do this, first select a character with RED. Then point to another character and click BLUE; Bravo will underline all the characters between the one you selected with RED and the one you pointed at with BLUE. This is called extending the selection. Try holding down BLUE and moving the cursor around. The selection will change continuously so that it includes the characters between the one you originally selected with RED and the one you are pointing at now. As before, when you let up the button, the selection will freeze. You can change the extension as many times as you want by using BLUE over and over; Bravo will remember the original selection you made with RED until you make another one.

Finally, try selecting a word with YELLOW and then using BLUE to extend the selection. Notice that the end of the selection will be a word also.

Space, TAB and carriage return (CR) characters in the document simply appear as white. space on the screen, just as they do on paper. You can, however, select them like any other characters. Try it. You will notice that not all the white space on the screen can be selected; in fact, the space on a line after a CR, and the space to the left of the left margin, cannot be selected. Bravo's handling of white space is discussed in detail in section 3.5.

Now that you know how to say where you want a change made, it's time to make a change. Select something (for instance, a word). Now type D (for Delete). The word you selected is deleted from the document, and the selection moves over to the character after the original selection. The rest of the text is adjusted to make up for the deleted material; if necessary some words may be brought up from the next line to fill up the one which contained the deleted material.

You can undo the deletion by typing U (for undo). Try it; you will see the stuff you deleted reappear, and it will be selected again, just as it was before you deleted it. Do several deletions, followed by undos, until you are sure you know what will happen. Try deleting larger pieces of text by extending your selections. Be sure not to move the selection between doing the Delete and the Undo.

Delete and Undo are commands. Like all Bravo commands, they are given by typing just the first letter of the command name. You can type the letter in either upper or lower case.

To add new text, select something in front of which you want the new text to go (if you want it to go at the very end of the document, you can select the endmark). Then type I (for Insert). You will see that a blinking caret appears just before the selection. This marks the place where the new text will go. Anything you type will appear where the caret is, and as you type each character, the caret will move over to make room for it. Try typing a few characters, and notice that the rest of the text is automatically rearranged to make room for the new stuff.

If you strike the wrong key while typing, you can erase the mistake by striking the BS key (on the right side of the keyboard). You can erase as many typed characters as you like

using BS. You can also use Ac (hold down the CTRL key and type A) to erase a character; it works just like BS, and may be more convenient to type with your left hand, if your right hand is on the mouse. To erase

typing on a larger scale, you can use We (hold down the CTRL key and type W) to erase a word and its following spaces or punctuation characters. When you have typed as much as you care to, hit Fsc to finish the insert. Notice that the caret disappears, and that the inserted material is selected. You can undo the insertion with Undo. Then you can undo the undo and get the insertion back. Try it.

Sometimes it is more convenient to insert after a selection, rather than before. You can do this with the Append command (remember that you just type the A). Except for where the new material goes, Append is exactly like Insert.

If you want to change one word into another, or correct a typo, you have to delete some text and insert other text in its place. This can be done by a Delete followed by an Insert, but it is more convenient to use the Replace command, which combines these two functions into one. Replace can also be undone.

Whenever Bravo first displays the blinking caret, you can insert a copy of some existing text rather than typing in new text. You do this by making another selection, called a copy selection, instead of typing. The copy selection is made exactly like an ordinary selection, and you can even use the scroll bar to move around in the document in order to find the text you want to copy. You can distinguish a copy selection from an ordinary one by its dotted underline, which contrasts with the solid underline of an ordinary selection.

You can change your copy selection as many times as you like. When you are satisfied with it, type ESC, and a copy of the copy selection will be inserted in place of the blinking caret. You can't do anything else while you are making a copy selection, except to scroll the document.

A copy selection can be used to move text from one place to another: first copy the text, and then delete the original.

There is one more useful thing to know about insertion. If you just type an ESC for an insertion, without making a copy selection or typing anything else, a copy of the last thing you inserted or deleted will be inserted. This is called repeating or defaulting an insertion; it is very convenient for inserting the same thing in several places, e.g., a dollar sign in front of several numbers. It also gives you another way to move text: first delete it, and then insert it in its new place by selecting the new place and typing Insert followed by ESC.

You now know all three ways of doing an insertion: typing the text, selecting some existing text to be copied, or defaulting the previous insertion by simply typing ESC. These three ways of inserting text can be used whenever a Bravo command needs some text. You will see many references to "inserting text" as you read   on.

Before going on to learn anything more about Bravo, you should practice the Delete, Insert, Append and Replace commands, and copy selections, until they are quite familiar.

2.3 Filing and Hardcopy

Whether you use Bravo simply to read or browse through a document, or to create or change it, you will need to fetch the document from a file before starting, and to file it away again afterwards if you have changed it. This section tells you how to do these things.

To fetch a document from a file, give the Get command. You will see the blinking insertion caret appear in the heavy black bar above the window. Insert the text of the file name, usually by typing it in, and ending it with an ESC just as for any other insertion. The document will appear in the document window, and there will be a note in the system window telling you how long it is. A Get will erase the old contents of the window, if any.

To file a document away, give the Put command, and type the file name as you did for Get. If the name you want is already in the black bar, you can just type ESC to default the name. It is also possible to edit the file name in the black bar, exactly like an ordinary document. Put always files away the entire document, regardless of what the selection is; when it is done, you will see a note which tells you how long it is. Warning. If you quit from Bravo without saving your document, you will lose any changes you have made. if this

does happen to you, read section 4.3 on replaying to see if                      you can still be saved.

If you Get a document from a file and Put it back on the same file, Bravo will save the original on a backup file. Normally this will be the old version of the file from which you did the Get, and Bravo will make a new version for the Put (see section 4 of the Alto Non-programmer's Guide for a discussion of file versions). If you have disabled version numbers at Install time, however, the backup file's name will be the name of the original file, followed by a "$". The backup file is sometimes useful if you discover that some of the changes you made are not to your liking after  all.

You can do an "unformatted Get" with the 2c command (type    instead of Get); this treats the formatting

information at the end of each paragraph as ordinary text. The main use of 2c is for patching up a file which has been damaged by hardware failure or cosmic rays. In particular, if Bravo refuses to Get the file because "End of file not in Bravo format", you can usually correct the problem by doing an unformatted Get

of the file, deleting the last line or two, and Putting it back. Then Quit, restart Bravo and try again to Get the file.

To print a document, simply give the Hardcopy command; it will print the entire document, regardless of what the selection is. While doing the hardcopy, Bravo displays in the cursor a count (modulo 10) of the number of pages it has processed; hardcopy takes about 8 seconds per full page, like this one. After sending the document to the Ears printer, Bravo will report success. If there is a problem, Bravo will leave a note in the system window. If the printer is not responding, Bravo will leave a note to that effect, and keep trying. You can abort the Hardcopy by typing DEL, as always.

The hardcopy may fail for several reasons. If there is an EFTP error, trying again will usually work. If the problem is that there is a character in your document which is in a font for which you don't have the necessary .ep file, Bravo leaves one of the offending characters selected, and puts it at the top of the screen. You can try again after retrieving the necessary file from the <Fonts> directory on Maxc and initializing Bravo (see section 2.44. If you have a paee with so many different fonts (usually more than 7 or 8) that it exceeds the 32k capacity of Ears, Bravo leaves the first character of the page selected and at the top of the window. There is no remedy for this problem except to simplify the offending page. See section 4.6 for more information about fonts.

You may want more than one copy of your document. The Hardcopy command has an option called Copies, which allows you to specify the number of copies you want; you type in the number, and it will appear in the leftmost buffer in the system window, much like a file name. You must give the Copies option right after the Hardcopy command, every time you want more than one copy.

If you compare the hardcopy of your document with Bravo's display, you will see that although the text is identical, the hardcopy has more words on each line, so that the two versions look quite different. In order to see a nearly exact facsimile of the hardcopy on the screen, you can give the command

Look hardcopy (note the lower-case h)

You are now in hardcopy mode on the screen. Until further notice, Bravo will represent the printed version of your document as faithfully as it can, by positioning each character on the screen within one-half screen dot (about .007 inches) of its position in the final hardcopy. The screen representation is 10% larger than the printed one (to change this scaling, see section 4.5). To turn off the hardcopy simulation, give the command

Look Hardcopy (note the upper-case H)

You can edit normally in hardcopy mode_ In fact, if your document contains tables whose appearance is critical to you, it is advisable to stay in this mode, because in the normal mode text will take up much more space on the screen than it will in the final hardcopy (if

you have such tables, you should also read section 3.5 on white space and tabs). In hardcopy mode it is

also possible to see exactly where lines will be broken, so that you can insert hyphens by hand if necessary.

When Bravo is printing a hardcopy, it will start a new page whenever it runs into the bottom margin (normally 1", but see section 3.6 to change it). It will also start a new page, after printing the current line, whenever it sees the character Lc (control-L) in the text. This character is displayed as a lower case "L" with an over-bar. You can't type it in simply by holding down CTRL and typing L, but instead you can type an L followed by Sc. You do this during an insertion, not as a command. The Le is treated just like any other character during editing. There are a number of other facilities for controlling page formatting, which you can read about in section 3.6.

The Hardcopy command has options for printing on the Diablo printer, and for producing an Ears file which can be combined with drawings into a larger printable document, or sent to Maxc for •printing. These are described in section 4.8.

2.4 Miscellaneous

As you edit, Bravo keeps track of the changes you make to the document. In doing this, Bravo consumes space in the Alto memory. During a long editing session, it is possible to consume all the available space, in which case Bravo will leave a warning note ("Core storage getting low") in the system window, and will refuse to execute any more editing commands. If this happens, you should Put your document onto a file immediately, and then Quit, restart Bravo, and Get the document back from the file. Now you can continue with another editing session.

When you have finished editing one document and have filed it away, you can Get another file, and continue working. It you are making extensive changes, however, it is better to Quit and restart Bravo when you start to work on a new document. If you do this, you are less likely to provoke a bug in Bravo, and you will be able to recover from a crash with the replay feature (section 4.3) much more quickly.

The maximum size of a Bravo document is 65,536 characters. Whenever Bravo Gets or Puts a document, it leaves a note telling you how long the document was. When your document has reached 65,536 characters, you won't be able to add any more text, and peculiar things may occur if you do try to add more text. It is a good idea to split the document into two parts well before this happens.

If you type a character which has no printable representation, Bravo will display it as a black rectangle.   The best thing to do with such a character is to delete it.

Depending on exactly what Bravo is doing, the amount of text it can display on the screen will vary. You can always get the maximum amount of text displayed by doing a scrolling operation; if you scroll up with the cursor at the top of the scroll bar, the text won't move, and Bravo will just display as much more as it can. If you then give a command, some of the text may disappear from the screen, but you can always get it to reappear by doing another scrolling                 operation.

Bravo keeps copies within itself of information in your user profile (see section 4.6) and in various files on your disk: font files (named *.al and *.ep), and the files containing the Bravo system and its temporary storage (named Bravo.*). It refreshes these copies whenever you start it up with


This is called initializing Bravo. It is necessary to initialize whenever you get a new version of Bravo, change your user profile or any font file, or run the Scavenger. Initializing is just like starting Bravo up normally, except that it takes about 30 seconds. If you are in any doubt about whether something has changed since the last time you initialized Bravo, or if your Bravo is crashing with messages which refer to disk or file errors, you should initialize Bravo by starting it with Bravo/i.

You now know enough to edit unformatted documents. Take a rest.

3. Formatting

This section describes the Bravo facilities for creating formatted text and pages. It you are not interested in formatting, you don't have to read it. if you are interested, be sure to read sections 3.3 and 3.4, where you will find a      lot of good advice.

Bravo normally describes character sizes and distances on the page in points. A point is a unit of distance used in the printing industry; there are 72 points per inch. Thus 36 points is 1/2 inch, and 18 points is 1/4 inch. In many cases, you can also specify distances in inches or centimeters, as described in section 3.2.

3.1 Making pretty characters

Bravo allows you to say how you want your text printed: in italics or bold face, underlined, in various sizes and type styles, superscripted or subscripted, etc. You can change the way existing text is printed, or you can say how you want the characters to appear as you are typing them in. We will begin by describing how to change the looks of existing text.

First, select the text you want to mess with. Then give the Look command.           This command

has a large number of options, each specified by             a single letter, which is sometimes
followed by some additional information:

bold                                                       shift B to un-bold

italic                                                       shift I to un-italicize

- to underline                                            shift - to remove the underline

‹- to subscript (text down 4 pts)                           shift 4- or t to superscript (up 4 pts)
0-9 to set the typeface

visible to display spaces, tabs                        shift V to stop this.
and carriage returns

> to make letters upper case                           < to make letters lower case

BS to overstrike with the next character. E. g.,    shift BS to stop overstriking
§ can be made by starting with <> and doing

Look-BS to the <. This can be repeated:

is <>1 with Look-Bs applied to both < and >.

Down followed by a distance (see below)           Up followed by a distance to

to move the text down that distance. relative       move the text up.         Superscript

to the baseline. Subscript is Down 4.               is Up 4.

CLR (the blank key to the right of Bs) to restore the standard looks: font 0; not bold, italic, underlined, visible, graphic, or overstruck; no up or down.

Try a few. You can turn all these on and off independently, although you won't be able to print a character which is both bold and italic with the fonts on the basic disk.

The typeface is usually called the font. For Bravo, each different size of the same style is a different font, but bold and italic are considered to be in the same font. The choice of fonts is specified by your user profile in a way which is described later (in section 4.6),

but the standard choice provided on the basic non-programmer's disk                         is:

0      Times Roman,    10 pt. This is the standard font.

1      Times Roman,     8 pt.

2     XEROX logo (only the capital letters E 0 R and X)

3      Math, 10 pt. A     large set of mathematical symbols. No bold or italics on

4      Greek, 10 pt. No      bold or italics on hardcopy.

5      Times Roman,     12 pt:

6      Helvetica, 10 pt.

7      Helvetica, 8 pt.

8      Gacha, 10 pt.     This is a fixed-pitch font.

9      Helvetica, 18 pt.      Only bold on hard-copy. This is mainly for making
view-graphs, since it is a good size for that purpose.

You will find tables at the end of this manual which give the correspondence between ordinary characters and the Math and Greek fonts, and some samples of the various fonts.

There is another Look option which is very convenient. It is Look Same, followed by a copy selection. In this case, what is copied is the looks, rather than the characters. This is the way to get one piece       of            text to print in the same style as another piece.

Like most commands, Look can be repeated with ESC. This is useful if you want to change the looks of several pieces of text in the same way. You can also undo a Look with Undo.

You can find out what the looks of a character are by selecting it and giving the Look ? command. Bravo will tell you (in the system window) all the looks of the selected character.


When you start typing, the looks which will be attached to the characters you type are set to the looks of

the   first character of      the selection if the command is Insert or Replace;

the   last character of the selection if the command is Append;

the   standard looks    otherwise.

To change the looks while you are typing text, use the CTRL key instead of the Look command: hold down CTRL and type the look you want. The only things described above which you can't do this way are Look > and < (use shift lock for this), and Look Up and Down; you can get the standard superscript and substript offsets with r and *-, though. To restore the standard looks, you can just strike the CLR key; it is not necessary to use CTRL in this case. Overstriking works a little differently during type-in: typing CTRL-BS causes the next character typed to overstrike the previous one. Thus, you can type in 3t by typing first <, then CTRL-BS, and then >.

3.2 Paragraphs

In addition to changing the looks of the characters, you can also change the shape of the text: the margins, space between lines, justification, centering, etc. The Bravo facilities for doing this are based on the      idea of a paragraph.

A paragraph in Bravo is all the text between two CTRL-CR characters. You can tell when you have one by selecting it. To do this, move the cursor into the line bar, which is between the scroll bar on the far left, and the text area. You can tell that you are in the line bar, because the cursor will appear as a rightward-pointing arrow. Once you are in the line bar, use the YELLOW button to select a paragraph. Note that the cursor changes to a mirror P symbol; it keeps this shape as long as                                                                                      the selection is a paragraph.

The CTRL-CR which ends a paragraph carries the paraeraph looks described below. It can also carry character looks, and if you are setting up a standard paragraph, it is a good idea to attach to its CTRL-CR the character looks which you want as the standard ones for the paragraph. Thus, for example, the CTRL-CR for a standard heading like the one at the start of this section would carry the italic look. Of course, this is just a convenience, and not essential; you can always set the character looks during typein as described above, e.g. by typing is for italics.

The YELLOW button selects exactly one paragraph, so by looking at what is underlined you can tell where the paragraph starts and ends. Note that the second CTRL-CR (the one which ends the paragraph) is counted as part of the paragraph; the first CTRL-CR is part of the previous paragraph. You can use BLUE to extend      the selection to several paragraphs.

To merge two paragraphs into one, just delete the CTRL-CR which separates them. You will probably want to replace it with a couple of spaces, or maybe with an ordinary CR. To break one paragraph into two, insert a CTRL-CR; it is just like any other character, except that you can't backspace over it.

If you select a paragraph and then give an Append, Insert or Replace command, a blank paragraph with the same looks as the selected one will be created for you to type into.

To change the looks of a paragraph, you can use some more sub-cases of the Look command. Select the paragraph (or any text in it) first, and then say Look, followed by:

center; turns off justification                          shift C to stop centering

justify (even right margin); turns off centering     shift 1 to stop justifying

nested to indent the whole paragraph (36 pts,     shift N to un-indent
or 1/2 inch, more)

open up more white space in front of                shift 0 to close up the white space
the paragraph (12 pts, or 1/6 inch, more)

g to open up half as much more white space in shift Q to close up the white space front of the paragraph as Open does (6 pts more)

All of these can be invoked during type-in; hold down the CTRL key and strike the appropriate key, just as you do for character looks.

In the following Look cases, d is a distance on the page, which can be specified in several different ways, as described below. Distances are measured from the left edge of the paper (except for Up and Down, which measure from the baseline of the line of text). These looks cannot be used during type-in.

Left d to set the left margin. The default is 85 points, or about 1.2 inches from the left edge of the paper.

First d to set the left margin of the first line. Use this to control indenting or un-indenting of the first line. A Look Left cancels a Look First, since it sets the left margin for all the lines of the paragraph.

Paragraph .d to set the left margin of all the lines except the first. A Look Left cancels

a Look Paragraph, since it sets the left margin for all the lines of the paragraph.

Right d to set the right margin. The default is 527 points. Since an 8.5" x 11" page is 612 point's wide, this results in 85 points, or 1.18", of white space on the right. Thus, the default margins center the text on the page.

X n to set the space or leading between lines. The leading should be at least 1 point (as it is in this document). to avoid a squashed effect. If you want a less dense appearance, try larger leadings. The default is 6pt, which gives double spaced text.

Y n to set the leading in front of the paragraph. The default is 12pt, which gives a blank line between paragraphs. Note that Look Open increases the paragraph leading by 12 pts, and Look Q increases it by half that, or 6 pts. Note that both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page or column. Leading must be less than 64 points.


a sequence of blanks a distance equal to the width of that many blanks.

By typing a number n, as above, preceded by + or -. The distance specified by n is added to, or subtracted from, the current value of the look being changed. Thus, to indent a paragraph by an additional one-half inch, type Look Left +.5 ESC.

By making a copy selection in some other paragraph, using YELLOW. The value of the look being changed is read from the selected paragraph (or character, in the case of Up and Down) and displayed in the system window, in both points and inches.

By using BLUE to point to a place on the screen. The horizontal position of the place you point at is displayed in the system window. if you hold down BLUE and move around, the displayed position is updated continuously.

By using RED to select a character. The horizontal position of the left edge of the character is displayed in the system window.

By typing \ (hack-slash, not /), which displays a default value for the look being changed in the system window.

By just typing ESC, which uses the value already in the leftmost buffer of the system window. This is useful if you want to read the value of some property with YELLOW, and then abort the command with DEL and copy the value to some other property; e.g., you might want to set the P margin to the same value as a tab stop.

You can select, point or default as many times as you want, just as with an ordinary copy selection. Then you can type a number, if you like. When the leftmost buffer in the system window has the value you want, type ESC to complete the command. Of course, if you get disgusted you can always type DEL to cancel the whole thing. Note that the copy selection is a convenient way to find out the value of a single paragraph look; after you

have seen it, you can cancel the command with DEL. Also, pointing is a convenient way to measure horizontal positions on the page.

Look All, followed by a copy selection, will copy all the paragraph looks of the paragraph in which the copy selection is made, to the paragraph containing the current selection.

If a paragraph is selected (using YELLOW in the line bar; the cursor will be a P symbol when a paragraph is selected), the Look ? command will display the paragraph looks in the system window; if the selection is not a paragraph, the command displays character looks, as described in the previous section. You may have to scroll the system window to see all

the information. Note that it appears in a buffer (see section 4.5) which is made current, and you can insert it into a document with a default insertion.

If you have a paragraph whose left margin is less than the default (normally 85 pts), any characters in the paragraph to the left of the default marein will fall off the left edee of the window and will not be displayed. Try settine a left margin to some values less than 85, and see how this works. You can change the setting of the left edge of the window, so as to make these characters visible on the screen, with the command

Window Edge d d is a distance, which must be typed in and cannot be obtained by pointing. The distance d is the distance from the left edge of the page at which the left edge of the window should be set. It should be smaller than any paraeraph left margin if you want to see all the characters on the left. For instance, if d is 0, the window edee will be at the paper edge; if the text has the usual 85 pt margin, this will result in 1.2" of white space in the window (in addition, of course, to the white space in the line and scroll

bars).                     The default value for d is the default left margin.


You can select several paragfaphs (using BLUE to extend your selection) and apply the same Look command to all of them. You can change the looks of every paragraph in the document by doing an Everything to select the whole document before the Look. A Look command involving a distance of the form +n or -n adds or subtracts n from the look value for each selected paragraph. Thus, Look Left +5 ESC will indent each selected paragraph by five more                                                          points.

If you use several different formats (e.g., for section headings or for indented material) you can copy the formatting from an existing example of a particular style to a newly created one with Look All. Often it is convenient to put a set of sample paragraphs at the head of your document, each containing one line which explains what it is a sample of. Then you can split the window (as described in section 4.2) and have the samples readily available to copy from with Look All.

When you are setting up the format for a document, you should put a few blank paragraphs (just CTRL-CRS) at the end, and set the formatting on all of them to your standard format (it is convenient to do this by copying the formatting from a paragraph which already has your standard format). This might include indenting the first line of a paragraph, setting the leading, leaving space between paragraphs, justification, and even the

font. Now when you add material to the document by inserting into one of these blank paragraphs, you will automatically pick up all of the formatting you have preset. As you type along, each time you use a CTRL-CR to start a new paragraph, it will acquire the same formatting as the old one.

3.3 Formatting style

This section is intended to provide you with some guidance in using all the different ways Bravo gives you for controlling the appearance of your document. Many of the rules are based on the customs of the printing industry. There are two advantages to following these customs:

they are the result of many years of experimentation, during which many people have tried to find out what looks -good on the page:

readers are accustomed to seeing text presented in this style.

You will notice that some of the rules are contrary to the usual practice for preparing documents on a typewriter. There are good reasons for this: when you are printing with variable-pitch fonts, italics, boldface, justification and precisely controlled leading, some of the things which work well for fixed-pitch, single-font documents are no longer appropriate.


Use italics for emphasis in text. You can also use boldface, but this is usually less desirable, and it is better to reserve boldface for words which play some special role, e.g., begin and end in computer programs. You should also use italics for the names of

variables, e.g., "Suppose there are             n items."

Don't use underlining for emphasis; it is not compatible with the use of italics and boldface. Use underlining only when you want a different kind of emphasis, e.g., to distinguish the characters a user types from the ones the machine types, as is done in this document.

Don't capitalize a whole word for emphasis. In fact, try not to capitalize a whole word at all: it usually looks terrible in a variable-pitch font because the capital letters are so much wider than the small ones. If you have words which you think should be set in capitals for some reason, try SMALL CAPITALS. In this example, the S and C were 10 point (font 0), the rest of the letters 8 point (font 1). Compare this with the appearance of FULLY CAPITALIZED words and you will see the point.


In general, use left-justified rather than centered headings, and don't use all capitals, for the reasons just discussed. Here is a satisfactory list of styles for the headings of successively larger portions of your document:

smallest            Italic                       18 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 18, or Look Q if
your standard leading is 12 pts).

next               Bold                            24 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 24, or Look 0 if
your standard leading is 12 pts).

largest              12 pt bold         36 pt paragraph leading (Look Y 36, or Look 0 twice
if your standard leading is 12 pts).

Note that you can switch from the standard leading to the 1.5, 2 or 3 times standard leadings for headings during typein, using Oc and Qc. For the largest units, you can center the heading and/or use.all caps instead of, or as well as, switching to a 12 pt font. It is best not to have more than three levels of heading, but you can extend to four or five levels using these tricks. Helvetica 18 bold (font 9 bold) is sometimes nice for chapter or document titles.

Use Look Keep 80 (see section 3.6) on headings to make sure that the heading doesn't end up all by itself at the bottom of a page.


The standard printing fonts are designed in such a way that they need some extra space between the lines to avoid a cramped appearance. You put this space in with Look X, and you should use 1 pt for ordinary single-spaced text. If you want a less dense appearance, experiment with more leading. For double-spacing of the text, try Look X 6 (the default).

Use double spacing (Look 0) between paragraphs. When you have indented material which is fairly short, try 6 pt leading (Look Q), as in the example two paragraphs back. Don't use extra carriage returns to get blank space between paragraphs. However, the maximum leading you can specify is 63 points; if you need more (e.g., to leave space for a figure) you will have to put in blank paragraphs.

Note that both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page or column_ The height of a line of text (in points) is equal to the point size of the largest font used in the line, provided there are no characters which have been superscripted, subscripted or offset with Look Up or Look Down. If any character in the line is offset Up, the minimum line height, including leading, is given by the font size of the character, plus its offset; i.e., characters offset Up are allowed to eat into the leading. If a character is offset Down, the largest such offset must be added to obtain the line height; i.e., characters offset Down are not allowed to eat into the leading.


Use Look nested to indent material, and Look Nested to cancel the indentation. Note that this also works when you are typing in. For example, if you type

citcric Here are three points: cRcncFirst ..cR`Second ..cRcThird ..cRcNcNow we continue ... the document will look like this:

Here are three points:
First ..

Second ..

Third ..

Now we continue ..

Use Look First if you want to indent the first line of a paragraph, rather than tabs. When you have a list of items, it is often nice to unindent the first line by about 15 pts, especially if the items are numbered. For example:

1. This paragraph was formatted with Look Left 120, Look First -15, in order to make the number hang out to the left.

2. To get the first word of the first line to line up with the left margin on subsequent lines, set a tab stop at that point (see section 3.5).

3. You can find out where to set the tab stop by doing Look Paragraph, using a copy selection to read the margin setting, and then aborting the Look command with DEL.                In this case, of course, the stop is at 120.


Use the smallest offset you can get away with for subscripts and superscripts, since large offsets result in wide ugly spaces between the lines. The offset used by Look t (superscript) and Look 4- (subscript) can be defined in your user profile (see section 4.6); the standard user profile sets it to 4 pts.

3.4 Forms

Although Bravo will let you begin with a completely empty window and start typing into it, this is a bad practice and should be avoided. Instead, you should start out by Getting a template or form which will guide you in constructing the document you want.

An obvious example is a memo form, and you will find one on the file Form.Memo. Start Bravo, and Get it into the window: You will see that it has spaces for the sender, receiver, date and subject, and that these are filled in with words which indicate what should go there. To fill in the form, select each of these words, and Replace it with the proper text. Then do the same with the MEMOBODY. When you are done, you have a completed memo which you can file under a suitable name using Put.

Your disk comes equipped with a few forms; you can see their names by typing form..rt to the Executive. You should construct your own forms for other kinds of documents which you find yourself creating frequently. As you have seen in the description of Bravo's formatting features above, a form can contain a great deal of information in addition to standard text and spaces to be filled in. You will find that your life is easier and your work is more uniform and of higher quality if you use forms consistently, and take the trouble to carefully design a new one when necessary.

3.5 White space and tabs

When you type on a typewriter, you can get white space to appear between characters by typing spaces or TABs. You can get blank lines by typing carriage returns. In Bravo, you can do exactly the same things, with exactly the same results. Space, TAB and CR are characters which are in your document exactly like "a", "b" or "c". You can get Bravo to display them as special, visible characters by selecting the text in which you want to see them, and typing

Look visible                                    (this must be a lower-case v).

 To turn off the display and just see the usual white space, type

Look Visible                                    (this must be an upper-case V).

Normally you don't have to type any CRs; Bravo will automatically end a line when there is no room for the next word. You can force a line to end by putting in a CR; this is appropriate when you want to control the layout of the text precisely, as in a table. Otherwise, don't put in CRs. You should use CTRL-CR to end a paragraph, as described in section 3.2.

Bravo allows you to set up to 15 tab stops, which are named by the digits 0-9 and the letters abcde. The tab stops are paragraph looks, just like the margins; hence they can be different for each paragraph. You can set a tab stop with the command

Look TAB t d

where t is a digit or one of the letters abcde, and d is a distance (see section 3.2).

When you strike the TAB key during typein. the caret moves to the next tab stop, just as it does on a typewriter, and a TAB character is added to the document. This TAB character will carry the name of the tab stop; this name won't change unless you replace the TAB with a different one. You can also name the TAB character explicitly when you type it in, by holding down the TAB key (as though it were a shift key) and striking one of the keys 0-9 or abcde. A named TAB character will always make the following character print at the correspondingly named tab stop. If printing has already passed that tab stop, Bravo will start a new line, and display a heavy black rectangle at the end of the previous line, to warn you that something is wrong.

For example, suppose you have a line like this

Column 1 Column 2                            Column 3

The tab stops are at 180, 265 and 400 points, and there is a TAB between each digit and the following C. If you now append some x's to the digit 1 to get past tab stop 1, the result will look like this:

Column lxxxxxxxl

Column 2                         Column 3

on the screen (the black rectangle does not appear in hardcopy). When you switch from normal display mode to hardcopy mode, there will usually be more white space occupied by the TAB, but everything will continue to be positioned in exactly the same way. An advantage

of naming the TAB explicitly when you type it is that you can move the caret to any column of a table with a single key stroke, by setting tab stops at each column, and typing the number of the column you want with the TAB key held              down.

You can find out the name of a tab stop by selecting it and giving the Look ? command. An unnamed tab is called a plain-tab.

As a convenience, you can set a contiguous group of tab stops at equal intervals by using the command Look Table d d n

where the two d's are distances which specify the left and right boundaries of a region, and n is the number of tabs desired.      For example,

Look Table 100 ESC 400 ESC   3 ESC

sets tab stops   0, 1 and 2 at 100, 200. and 300 points respectively.

For compatibility with old versions of Bravo, and with the programmer-oriented tab conventions of the Alto and Maxc, you can set unnamed or plain tab stops spaced at equal intervals with the command

Look TAB = d

where the distance d specifies the interval. If you don't set any tab stops, you get plain tab stops spaced at 36 pts (this parameter comes from the user profile, and can be changed: see section 4.6).

If you put a TAB in a paragraph that has plain (unnamed) tabs, and then in later editing add so many characters before the TAB character that it gets pushed past the stop, it will automatically move to the next tab stop. In other words, every time you edit the line, Bravo behaves as though you had retyped it completely. For example, suppose you have a line    like this

Column 1      Column 2     Column 3

The tab stops are at 145, 205 and 265 points (i.e. an even spacing of 60 pts), and as before there is a TAB between each digit and the following C.                                   Now if you add characters in front of the first TAB, like this:

Column lxxxxxxx              Column 2       Column 3

all the columns move over. Similarly, if you started with the second line and removed the x characters, all the columns would move back to the positions they had in the first line, since the x characters overlapped a tab stop. This can also happen when switching between the normal display mode and hardcopy, since characters take up less space on the page in hardcopy. Of course, you can always use Look hardcopy to see the document on the screen          exactly as    it will be printed.

One final word about white space: Bravo has formatting features, described in the section on paragraphs above, which allow you to indent the first line of a paragraph, and to put blank space above a paragraph, without using spaces, TABS or extra CRs. It is good practice to use these features, since you can control the spacing much more precisely and don't have to worry about having extra characters cluttering up your document.

3.6 Page formatting

There are a number of features to help you in controlling the layout of your document on printed pages. Unlike the horizontal layout, the location of page breaks and the headings, page numbers etc. for the most part cannot be displayed on the screen. There is, however, a page boundary command which allows you to see on the screen where the page

boundaries will appear in the hardcopy. The command is invoked by the LF key. It assumes that the first character of the current selection is the first character on a hardcopy page, and it moves the selection to the first line of the next page. By applying the page boundary command repeatedly, you can move through the document, page by page (or column by column, if your document profile specifies multiple columns; see below). Alternatively, if you know where one page break is (perhaps because of a control-L in the previous line; see below), you can start there. If you want to start at the beginning of the document, you can use the Everything command to make the first character of the document be the first character of the selection.

As a convenience, the page boundary command leaves the original selection at the top of one subwindow, and the first line of the next page as the third line of the next subwindow (which it creates if necessary). Among other things, this makes it easy to do some editing near the end of the page, and then reselect the beginning of the page and repeat the command. Try it.

Normally, Bravo will start a new page when it runs out of room on the current page, i.e., when the next line to be printed would intrude on the bottom margin, or at the beginning of a paragraph if the amount of space left before the botom margin is less than the paragraph's keep value.. You can force a page break by including a control-L in the text; the line containing the control-L will stay on the same page, but the next line will start a

new page. To type a control-L, type L Sc. You can also force a paragraph to start a new page by giving it a keep property of 11". If you want to position the paragraph precisely on the new page, give it a vertical tab property as well.

You can exercise some control over where page breaks occur with the command Look Keep d        d is a distance

This sets the paragraph property called keep, which has the following meaning. During hardcopy, when printing of the paragraph is begun. the amount of space left on the page before the bottom margin must be at least the keep distance, or a new page will be started. For instance, by setting the keep of a heading to the total height of the heading (including its leading) plus the height of the first two lines of the next paragraph, plus the paragraph leading, you can ensure that the heading will never end up alone at the bottom of a page. Good values to use, with standard fonts and paragraph leading as in this document, are 40 pts on ordinary paragraphs and 80 pts on headings.

You can set the vertical position of a paragraph precisely on a page using the vertical tab property, which is set by the command

Look Z d                                                    d is a distance.

When a paragraph with a vertical tab is printed, its upper edge (including leading, if any) will be positioned at the vertical tab value, measured from the bottom of the page (i.e., use 10.5" to put it .5" from the top). Unlike a horizontal tab, which may start a new line, a vertical tab never starts a new page; instead, it may cause overprinting. Vertical tabs are useful for positioning headings and footnotes, and for precisely aligning text to meet some physical constraint, such as a pre-printed form or a window envelope. The first line of a paragraph with a vertical tab will be printed on the current page, even if it runs into the bottom margin (but not if the paragraph also has a keep property which forces it off the page). To remove a vertical tab, use the default distance; i.e., type Look Z \ ESC.

Vertical tab and keep properties are not visible on the screen, but you can always use Look ? to find out whether a paragraph has them, and what their values are.

Note that both line and paragraph leading are suppressed for the first line of a page of column. If you want white space in front of such a line 1, you can use vertical tabs, or introduce a blank line in front of line 1, and adjust the leading of 1 to compensate for the

height of the blank line.

The remaining aspects of page formatting can be controlled by an optional document profile which you can put at the very beginning of the document. The document profile is a sequence of paragraphs, each of which must have the profile property. This property is set and cleared by a Look command:

Look ; sets the profile property                                           Look shift • clears it

A document profile has the following form (this one is the profile for this part of this manual):

Page Numbers: Yes X: 527 Y: -.5"             First Page: 37 Not-on-first-page
Private Data Stamp: No X: 3.5" Y: -.6"

Columns: 1 Edge Margin: .6" Between Columns: .4"

Margins: Top: 1.3" Bottom: 1" Binding: -5

Line Numbers: No Modulus: 5 Page-relative First Line: 1

Odd Heading: Not-on-first-page


Even Heading:

Section 3: Formatting

Any of the lines may be omitted, and in general any of the fields on a line may be omitted. Fields on a line are separated by one or more spaces. Distances, shown in inches in the example, may be given in points or centimeters, as described in section 3.2. X coordinates are from the left edge of the paper, Y coordinates from the bottom; negative coordinates are measured from the right edge or top of an 8.5" x 11" page.

Bravo's measurements on the page are exact to less than .01". The Ears printer, however, can make errors in positioning the text on the page of as much as .25" in any direction. These errors do not affect the relative positions of characters (e.g., the length of a line cannot be affected) but they can cause the text to shift around on the page as a whole.

We now proceed to explain the various options.


The coordinates of the page number are the coordinates of the upper right corner of the number. You can add Roman to the line if you want Roman numerals for your page numbers, and Uppercase if you want the Roman numerals in tipper case. If Not-on-first-page is present, the page number is not printed on the first page of the document. If First Page is not specified, it is assumed to be 1, and Not-on-first-page is also assumed for both page nubmers and heading; i.e., there will be no page number or heading on page 1 in the default case.

The coordinates of the private data stamp are for its upper right corner. Do not use a private data stamp without proper authorization. You will need to supply a password on each hardcopy to get the private data stamp applied; see the CSL laboratory manager's secretary to learn the password if you have a legitimate need.


The top margin specifies the amount of white space at the top of the page. The bottom margin specifies the minimum amount of white space at the bottom of the page; a line will start a new page if any part of it intrudes into the bottom margin. Exception: if a paragraph has a vertical tab, its first line will be printed without regard to the bottom margin, and it may be positioned without any regard to the top margin.

If Binding appears, it is assumed that the pages are eventually to be printed on both sides of the paper, with odd-numbered pages on the right side of the resulting double spreads. Page numbers of even pages will be reflected left-to-right; in the example, even page numbers will have their upper left corner at X: .5" Y: .5". The binding distance is the amount of extra margin to be supplied on the inner side of the page, which abuts the binding. This amount is added to all the X coordinates on odd pages, and subtracted from all the X coordinates on even pages. For example, if you want 98 pt (1.36") outside margins and 72 pt (1") inside margins, use a left margin (Look Left) of 85 pt (the default), and a right margin (Look Right) of 612 (8.51-85=527 (also the default) to center the text

on the page.        Then use a Binding of 72-85=-13.                                  In general, this rule is

Let d = (desired outside margin + desired inside margin)/2

Look Left

Look Right              612 (8.5") - d

Binding:                 desired inside margin - d.

This rule will     lead to a negative binding if the inside margin is less than the outside
margin; that is perfectly all right.


The columns line is relevant only for multiple-column pages. It says that the hardcopy should have the specified number of columns, with the nominal edge margin (at both edges) specified (.6" in the example), and the amount of space between columns specified (.4" in the example). If the number of columns in the example is changed to 2, the nominal horizontal layout of an odd page    will be:

.6" edge margin - 3.45" text,     col 1 - .4" between  cols - 3.45" text, cot 2 - .6" edge margin

for a total of 8.5". The text is centered on the page; if a Binding is specified, the text will be displaced in opposite directions on odd and even pages, just as for single-column text. The width of the text in the columns (3.45 in this example) is determined by subtracting all the other space from the 8.5" page width. If there are tic columns, the column width is

col width = (8.5"       - 2*(edge margin)               - (nc -1)*(between cols))/nc

The text width and position specified above is only nominal: the actual width and position is determined by the specified left and right margins in the following way. The first column is printed exactly as its left and right margins specify. The second column is moved right by (col width + between cols) from what its left margin specifies (i.e., that amount is added to all its X coordinates). This means, for example, that you can get a double-column page with some text at the top which runs all the way across by setting the right margin of the full-width text appropriately, and using a vertical tab to position the first paragraph of the second column below the full-width text. The appearance of the resulting page           will be

Full-width text ...........................................

first-col text          second-col text

Note that to do this you must manually find the end of the first column (easily done using the page boundary command), and put a suitable vertical tab property on the first paragraph of the second           column.

A consequence of this laissez-faire approach to column formatting is that you must supply the proper left and right margins yourself. To keep the text within the nominal boundaries defined above, the left margin should be greater than or equal to the edge margin specified in the document profile, and the right margin should be less than or equal to the edge margin plus the column width. The command Look \ will make it more likely that the document satisfies these restrictions, by shifting all the left margins over by the difference

between the default left margin (normally 85 pts) and the edge margin, and similarly shifting all the right margins over by the difference between the default right margin (normally 527 pts) and the edge margin plus the column width. Its effects can be reversed with Look shift-\, until you Put the document then they are permanent. This command works well if your text is straight prose, with no careful horizontal formatting. If your text is any more complex than that, you should plan on manually formatting it for multiple-column printing, since the automatic facility is unlikely to do what you want.

The edge margin specified in the example, which would be much too small for single-column pages, is good for double-column. It is also desirable to reduce the top and bottom margins when you are printing double-column, e.g. to .8" and .4" respectively.

When you are printing more than one column, a Lc in the document starts a new column rather than a new page. To start a                                           new page, use two consecutive Lc characters.


If there is a line which says

Line Numbers: Yes Modulus:                     n Page-relative First Line: f

every nth line will be numbered, slightly to the left of the standard left margin. Thus, if n is 5, the numbers will be 5, 10, 15 If Page-relative appears, numbering starts over on each page; otherwise it continues throughout the document. if First Line appears, the first line is numbered f, and numbering continues from there; otherwise the first line is numbered 1.


If a Heading line appears, it must be followed by a paragraph, also with the profile property. which is used as the heading on each page. This paragraph should have a vertical tab which positions it correctly (for example, 10.5" for the heading on this page) and appropriate margins, centering or whatever to produce the desired effects. It may have more than one line. It is also possible to have separate Odd Heading and Even Heading paragraphs. If Not-on-first-page is present, the heading will not be printed on the first page.

4. Other things

In this section you can learn about a wide variety of other useful things Bravo can do. They are described more-or-less in order of cost-effectiveness: the earlier ones will probably give you more payoff per unit of effort to learn them.

4.1 Some useful features

This section describes a number of features which are easy to learn and helpful to use. As always, it is a good idea to try them out as you read about them.

You can select entire lines of the document by moving the cursor into the line bar, which is to the left of the text area and to the right of the scroll bar. You can tell that you are in the line bar because the cursor will appear as a right-pointing arrow when it is in the line bar. To select the entire line pointed to by the cursor, use the RED mouse button. To extend the selection, use the BLUE button. Both of these work very much like selecting a character and extending. The YELLOW button selects a paragraph; you can read about paragraphs in section 3.2.

To put the current selection at the top of the screen, say Normalize. To select the whole document, say Everything.

To insert the current date and time in front of the current selection, say Time. Notice that it leaves just the time selected, so if you follow it immediately with a Delete, you will be left with just the date. To replace some text with the current date, select it and say Delete Time Delete; be sure you understand why this works.

You can search the document for the next occurrence of some text with the Jump command. After you say Jump, you have to specify the text you want to search for, and you do this exactly the way you make an insertion: by typing it in (ending with ESC), by making a copy selection, or by typing ESC to default to the same text which was used for the last Jump (not the last insertion or deletion). Notice that if you type in text, it appears between the right-most set of curly brackets in the system window: this is called the search key buffer, and it normally contains the last text you searched for. The search starts with the second line displayed in the window. If it succeeds, it brings the first occurrence of the text to the top of the window; if it fails, a note in the system window informs you. Jump does not affect the current selection. The search ignores the looks of the characters.

You can substitute one text for another using the Substitute command. It will ask you (in the top window) for the information it needs. In looking for substitutions it will examine only the text in the current selection, so if you want to substitute throughout the document, do an Everything first; this will make the entire document the current selection. For reasons you don't want to know about, it is not a good idea to do a Substitute in which the old text contains a CR.

Most Bravo commands can be repeated by simply typing ESC in command mode. When you do this, Bravo uses the current selection, not the one which the previous command used. For example, you can append a carriage return after each of several words by selecting the first one and Appending after it, and then selecting successive words and simply typing ESC. Or, you can search through the document looking for occurrences of a word by Jumping to it once and then just typing ESC.

The Undo command will undo the action of most Bravo commands which change the document, provided you haven't moved the selection. You can only Undo the most recent command; it will still work if you have scrolled, however_

The f command will put parentheses around the current selection. You can put other kinds of brackets around the current selection with the commands L 1_, <, and ". The command expands the current selection as little as possible to make it balanced with respect to parentheses. Again, the 3, 1, and > commands do similar things.

4.2 Windows

So far you have worked with a single document in a single window. Bravo will let you work on several documents at the same time, each in its own window. This is convenient if you want to compare two documents, or copy something from one into another, say from an address list into a letter. You can also have several subwindows looking into the same document, which is nice when you want to copy something from one part of the document to another, or to check something on another page without losing your place.

At the top of each window, separating it from the one above, is a heavy black bar. Inside this bar is the name of the file for the document in the window; this name is set by Get and used by Put. It can be edited like any other text. Subwindows, created only by the split operation described below, are separated by horizontal black lines. All the subwindows of a window are looking at the same document, although usually at different parts. If part of the document happens to be displayed in several subwindows, any changes to it will appear in all of them, and so will the selection underline or the insertion caret. Two different windows, on the other hand, are always looking at different documents, and no change to one window can affect the other. You can copy text freely from one document to another with a copy selection.

Some commands, like Jump, Everything, Get, Put and Hardcopy, work on the current window, which is the window containing the current selection.

There are two commands for windows, one for creating and re-arranging windows, and the other for destroying them. Each has three options, selected by the three mouse buttons.

To create a new window, type Window, move the cursor so that it marks the point where you want the new window boundary to be, and hold down BLUE. The new window will appear. As long as you keep BLUE down, you can move the cursor around and the top boundary of the new window will follow it. When you let go of the button, the boundary will freeze. Try it. The new window will be empty, but you can insert or Get into it.

To split a window and create a new subwindow, type Window, put the cursor where you want the split, and hold down YELLOW. The new boundary will appear, and it will follow the cursor until you release YELLOW. It is important to understand that after a split you have the same document in each subwindow. Scroll one of the subwindows so that some of the same text appears in both subwindows, and select some of the common text. Notice that the selection appears in both subwindows. If you make changes to the document, you will see them in both subwindows. This is very different from creating a new window and Getting the same file into it; that is equivalent to taking another copy out of a file cabinet.

To move a window or subwindow boundary, type Window, put the cursor over the boundary you want to move, and hold down RED. The boundary will follow the cursor until you let go of RED.

You can get rid of a window or subwindow by typing Kill, putting the cursor in the doomed window, and holding down RED or BLUE for about a second. RED will give the space of the window to the window above; BLUE will give it to the window below. Kill YELLOW will clear the window; it is equivalent to Everything Delete (except that you can't Undo it).

In summary:

Window                                    Kill

RED                                move boundary                    give space to window above

YELLOW                         split; new subwindow               clear

BLUE                              new window                       give space to window below

4.3 If Bravo breaks

When Bravo breaks or crashes, what usually happens is that Swat gets called; the manifestation is a couple of seconds of whirring from the disk, followed by a mostly blank display on the screen, with the words Swat version xx at the top. It this happens, look at the bottom of the screen, where there will be a more or less intelligible message. In some cases this message may describe a condition you can do something about, e.g. that your disk is full. Or it may inform you of a parity error; if this happens repeatedly, you should file an Alto trouble report to          get your Alto repaired (see section 5.1 of the Alto

Non-programmer's Guide). A third possibility is some fairly meaningless message describing an internal Bravo malfunction. In any case, after looking at the message you should boot the machine. Then, if you want to recover your work, you can proceed as described below.

Bravo makes a record of everything you do during a session; the record is called the transcript. It is useful for                 three reasons:

If Bravo crashes because it has a bug, the transcript can be used to report the problem to the people responsible for fixing bugs.

If Bravo crashes because of a hardware failure of your Alto, a power failure, you accidentally pushing the boot button, or whatever. you can recover your work by replaying the transcript. In this case, the last few characters you typed may be lost.

If you make a mistake, like deleting half of the document you have been editing for several hours, you can replay the transcript up to the error and then save the document.

You can do all these things using a                                      system called BravoBug. Thus,


will start replaying your transcript. As the replay proceeds, Bravo will report each command, just as it does when you type a command in the usual way. When it is finished, Bravo will say Ready, and you can go on editing. It is a good idea to save your work with a Put and start Bravo again.

Warning-. you can only do a replay if you haven't started Bravo up again. Once you restart Bravo normally, your                               chance to replay is lost.

To report a bug in         Bravo and then    do a replay, type


This will send over to Maxc all the files involved in the bug, including the transcript, and then start Bravo to do the replay.

You can control the replay, step by step, as described in this paragraph. To stop a replay which is going on, type a space. As soon as the command currently being replayed is finished, Bravo will stop and tell you the number of the next command. At this point you can type

Quick to make typed-in text go in all at once during the replay, rather than one character at a time. This is faster, but you don't get to see what is going on. Quick is the normal mode.

Slow to make typed-in text go in one character at a time.

space to replay one more command. Note: only commands which change the text or windows are recorded in the transcript, not scrolling operations.

Proceed to continue replaying at full speed. You can stop the replay again at any point by typing a space.

Break before command n to make the next Proceed stop before command n (of course, it will still stop right away if you type a space). This is useful if you know that the first 50 commands are good, but want to proceed more cautiously after that. Note that after a Bravo crash, the Swat display usually tells you the number of the command during which the crash occurred.

Terminate CR to terminate the replay. After terminating, you can proceed to give ordinary Bravo commands. Don't do this unless you are sure that you want to stop replaying.

You should try replaying a Bravo session and using these commands, so that you feel comfortable with them. You will then feel much more in control when you have a problem with Bravo or your Alto, or make a serious blunder while editing.

4.4 Arithmetic

Bravo incorporates a simple calculator, modeled after the Hewlett-Packard 35. The calculator has a stack with room for four numbers; while you are using it the top of the stack is displayed in the search key buffer, in the lower right corner of the system window.

To enter a number in your document onto the stack, select it and type \ (enter). To add a

number in your document to the top of the stack, select it and type + (or                       which is the

lower-case character on the same key). Similarly, you can subtract with multiply with * (or <-), and divide with /. The % command is just like *, except that it divides the result by 100. After any of these operations, the top of stack is the current buffer, which means that you can insert its contents in a document by defaulting the text of the insertion with


If you want to type in a number instead of selecting it, just type the number, and end it with one of the calculator commands. The number will appear in the middle buffer while it is being typed.

You can operate on the top two stack elements, rather than on the current selection and the stack, by prefixing the operation with the Calculator command. Thus, to compute (a + b) * (c + d), you


select a       \ (enter)

select b       ±

select c       \

select d          +

Stack: a

Stack: a+ b Stack: c

Stack: c+ d

Stack: ( a+ b)* (c+ d)

a+ b a+ b


This also works for enter: Calculator \ duplicates the top of the stack; if the stack was a b c d, it becomes a a b c.

There are a few more calculator commands which are occasionally useful:

— exchanges the top two elements of the stack:                                          a b c d becomes b a c d.

1' rotates the stack, bringing the second element to the top and the top to the bottom: a b c d becomes b c d a. Four repetitions of t leave the stack where it was.

Calculator n sets the number of digits after the decimal point to n. It is initialized to 2. All calculator arithmetic is rounded.

Calculator Fixed sets the display to fixed point (the normal mode). Calculator Scientific sets                                             the display to scientific   notation.
Calculator Engineering sets the display to engineering notation.

Calculator Radix n sets the radix. n can be a digit, or Binary, Octal, Decimal or Hexadecimal.

9.5 Other useful features


The system window contains three pieces of text enclosed in curly brackets. These are called buffers, and they are used for a variety of purposes, some of which you have already encountered. The three buffers are numbered, as follows:

1 {last deletion}                 2 {last insertion}              3 {search key}

One of the buffers is always marked with a "*"; that one is the current buffer, and its contents are usually what is inserted when you default a text insertion by simply typing ESC.

Commands which insert into buffers, like Jump and Substitute, default to the old contents of the buffer being loaded. Get and Put default to the file name already in the window.

The text in the buffers is always in visible mode, i.e., with spaces, TABS and CRS shown explicitly. Furthermore, TABS and CRS don't have their usual effect of leaving white space, because there is no room in the system window for these effects. Finally, if there is too much text to fit in the space allowed for the buffer on the screen, the middle of the text is replaced by an ellipsis (...).

You can force buffer n to be the current buffer with the command Buffer n ESC. You can set the contents of buffer n with the command Buffer n followed by typing or a copy selection.


If you want to substitute "that" for "this" you can use the Substitute command described in section 4.5. If you want to change some of the occurrences of "this" to "that", however, it is useful to know about the Find and Yes commands.

Find is exactly like Jump, except that

the search starts from the end of the current selection, not from the second line of the display;

the occurrence of the key which is found becomes the current selection (Jump leaves the selection unchanged).

Yes is equivalent to Replace ESC Find ESC. So, to change some "this"es to "that"s, proceed as follows:

select something before the first place you want to start looking;

Find this ESC.

ESC to      repeat the Find until you get the one you want to                    change;

Replace   that Esc;

Find ESC;

Now at each point type ESC (i.e., repeat the Find) to make no change and go on to the next "this", or Yes to make the same change you made last time and then go on.


You have already learned about Look hardcopy, which shows you the document on the screen as it will look when printed, but about HI% larger than the printed size. If you want a different magnification, you can use the command Look Magnify n, where n is a single digit which specifies the amount of magnification you want:

8                         screen is 80% the size of the hardcopy

9                                     90%

0                                     100%

1                   110% (hardcopy just fits with a right margin of 530)

3                                     130%

4                                     140%

You can return to the normal, non-hardcopy mode of display with Look Hardcopy, as usual. Once you have done a Look Magnify, a subsequent Look hardcopy will use the same scaling.

At the larger magnifications there won't be room on the screen for all of the page unless the right margin is less than 530, and the excess will be chopped off on the right. This makes magnifications greater than 110% relatively useless, except for documents which are narrower than   a normal full-width page.

Depending on the magnification, Bravo will choose an appropriately sized screen font from the list provided in your user profile (see the next section) to represent each of your hardcopy fonts. There is no guarantee that a screen font will exist which is closely matched to the hardcopy font at the magnification you are using. In order to make the screen faithful to the hardcopy, Bravo forces each character to appear on the screen as nearly as possible where it will appear in the hardcopy. The maximum error is about .007".

Normally, Bravo formats the hardcopy display to match the hardcopy which will be produced by Ears or some other xerographic raster-output printer. If you want the hardcopy display to match the hardcopy produced by the Diablo printer, you can say Look Magnify Diablo n.


Note: this section is mostly for programmers.

Bravo normally displays a control character as the corresponding lower-case letter (or whatever) with an overbar. If you turn on Look Graphic it will try to display the control character from the font (if there is something in the font for it). This is a character Look, just like Look Visible.

You can't type a control character in directly, but you can type the corresponding regular character, followed by a Sc, which converts the preceding regular character into a control character.

4.6 The user profile and fonts

The file is your user profile, which contains information for various systems about how you want them to be set up for your use. The information for each system starts with the name of the system in brackets, e.g. [BRAVO]. Then follow a series of lines of the form

label: information

Bravo currently accepts three kinds of information in the user profile: initial and quit macros, described in the next section, and font definitions and default parameter settings, which are discussed here.           Look at your file now, to see how this works.

Each line of font definition tells

the number of the font (0 to 9)

the name and size (in points) of the hardcopy font

the name and size of one or more screen fonts which can be used to represent that hardcopy font on the screen. Bravo will choose the most suitable font from this list, based on the current magnification.

For example, the line


says that font 0 is to print as 10 pt Times Roman. The font will be represented on your disk by a file called the "ep" is the extension for hardcopy fonts. There will also be files called TimesRomanlOi.ep and TimesRomanlOb.ep for the italic and bold versions of the font, if you expect to use those.

The rest of the line says that font 0 can be represented on the screen by the screen fonts stored on files and TimesRoman10.31. Bravo will use the 12 pt version in display mode, and the 10 pt version if the magnification is 110% or less. The extension "al" is used for screen fonts. There are no files for the bold or italic versions of screen fonts, because Bravo can construct them from the regular version.

In addition to all these .ep       and .al files, there is also a file called fonts.widths which

contains information about   the widths of all the characters in the hardcopy fonts.

Current versions of all the Parc fonts are stored on the Maxc directories <Fonts> and <Altofonts>, If you obtain new hardcopy fonts from these directories, you should also get yourself a new version of <Eonts>fonts.wiciths; after getting new fonts, be sure to initialize


The user profile also contains settings for default left     and right margins
tab interval

Look nested parameters

default line leading (used by Look X) and paragraph leading (used by Look Open, Look Q and the default for Look Y)

standard offsets (used by Look t, Look          and the default for Look Up and Look

You can change all these settings by editing in a way which should be obvious; after doing this, be sure to initialize Bravo. Except for the default margins, all these settings affect only the process of editing the document, and not the document itself. in other words, once a Look nested, superscript or whatever has been done, the margins, offset etc have been set in the document and cannot be affected by subsequent changes in the user profile.

4.7 Startup and Quit macros

This section is only for programmers, and is                                not recommended even for them.

You can put into your user profile sequences of Bravo commands, called macros, to be executed automatically when you start up or quit from Bravo. Each macro is named by a letter. Startup macro x will be executed if you start Bravo with

>Bravo/x       .

Quit macro x will be executed if you type an "x" instead of CR after typing Quit.

You can see the format of a macro. definition by looking at your user profile. The command sequences are just like those which Bravo writes into the transcript (the file Bravo.ts), and can be constructed by actually executing the desired sequence of commands, and then copying Bravo.ts to another file and copying the sequence out of that file. There are two exceptions:

* in place of a selection (which looks like {6,2,123,648}) means the current selection;

@n in place of typed-in text (which                              looks like 'text{)            means the nth

parameter.                             For startup macros the parameters are strings on the command line

separated by blanks; the first one after                          Bravo/x is numbered 1.       For quit
macros, parameters 1, 2 and 3 are the three buffers, 4 is the file name for the

first window, 5 the file name for the                                second window, etc.

These features are not guaranteed to work; use them at your own risk.

4.8 Diablo and Ears hardcopy

To make an Ears file on your disk instead of sending your hardcopy directly to the Ears printer, use the Ears option to the Hardcopy command. It will ask you for the name of the file; the recommended name is the name of your document, wioth the extension replaced by "cars". Once you have made this file, you can store it on Maxc, where it can easily be printed    (see section 8.4 of the Alto Non-programmer's Guide), or you can give it to

PressEdit to combine it with other files into a            large document (see section 10 of the

Guide). Warning. the Ears file is typically 50% larger than the document file; be sure you have enough room on your disk.

For both Ears and Diablo printing, you can start printing at a specified page number with the Hardcopy option

Start at page n

This is mainly useful for Diablo printing. There will usually be a substantial delay while Bravo figures out where page n starts.

To print on the Diablo printer, you can use the Diablo option to the Hardcopy command. Before doing this, be sure a printer is plugged into your Alto; when you plug or unplug it, turn the Alto power off first. This option has an array of sub-options, which you can invoke when it pauses before printing each page. At the pause, the system window says "Ready to print page n", and the beginning of the text for page n is displayed in the document window (if there is room in Bravo's memory).          You can then say:

Repeat last page to prepare to reprint the previous page, instead of the page which was going to be printed next.

Continuous print, to suppress the pause after each page; this is useful if you have continuous forms in your printer. You can still stop the printing by typing space during printing, as described below.

space to start printing the page which Bravo says it is ready to print.

During printing, you can abort printing of the current page at any time by typing a space. You can then use the options just described to restart the current page (with space) or reprint the previous page (with Repeat). If you want to start at another page, use DEL to leave the Hardcopy command, give another Hardcopy command, and use the Start at page tr option.

Font 5: Times Roman 12

ABCDEFHIJLMNOPQSTUVXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#$%-&*()=1-Aill+f;:'",<>1?

ABCDEFHIJLMNOPQSTUVXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !#$-&*( )..+11( .1{ }D;:r",.< )7?

ABCDEFHIJLMNOPQSTUVXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#$%-&*()=+ \ILint;:mr< >1?

Font 9: Helvetica 18 (bold only)





!@#$%—&* ()-=+\(


Text Box: Font 1: Times Roman 8
A BCDEFGHIJK LMNOPQRSTUVWXY2 abcdefghi jk I mnopqrztuvwxyz !@#S%-&*()-=+ \ In{	>/?
A BC DE FG H 1J K LAI NO PQRSTUVWXYZ abcd efghij k I mrropq rzttivwxyz (..42,0`$%-&*( 1-=4-‘1[1{1#-t;:'",.( )/?
A BCD EFG H IJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abedefghijklinnopqrztuvwxyz
!@#$%-&*0-=+ \	1€*;f",.< >1?
Font 0: Times Roman 10

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz

!@#$%-&*()---.+Ail )4- t::"'-<>/?

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#$%_&*( )-=+\/t j/                  .>/?

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz

!@#V70-84*0-=+ \ ID{                    >1?

Text Box: Font 7: Helvetica 8
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#S%-&•(	I[]{}
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#$%-&' = +	LI,-	<>1?
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz
!@#S%-8,' -=+ 100 4- t;:'"-0/?
Font 6: Helvetica 10

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz


ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz !@#$%–&'0-=+\11H)

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz



Font 8: Gacha 10 (fixed pitch, no bold or italic)

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ abcdefghijklmnopqrztuvwxyz

!@#$%-&*( )—+ \ I NO";      -on

Font 2: Logo 24



Text Box:  Text Box: 4 0
Text Box: 5
Text Box: 2
Text Box: 3
00 O
Text Box: 6
Text Box: Q
Text Box: Here is the keyboard layoutText Box: 7	8
Text Box: MText Box: II	3Text Box: 0Text Box: for Math: Text Box: 9	0
m	P
•	CC
Text Box: L
Text Box: 0Text Box: Font 3: Math 10 (no italic or bold) vEcv3t.c(tc37)D)occ-nlz--_Luv=xln
Text Box: 1/2Text Box: 3/4Font 4: Hippo 10 (no italic or bold)
ABEAMTHIKAMNOTIOPITTOXII/Z aigSekprp.socAtivowtipaTvwx,Pi. !@#$%-&*0-=+\1[]{}4-7;:',./

Here is the keyboard                   layout for

1 2          3     4     5     6    7      8         9

Text Box: # $ %	&
1 2 3 4 5 6	7

8                                                                        9

QWERT                      Y    U      I

m      0     E    P     T     NI,   T      I

0     6)    r     p     I'       Iii       v

AS          D    F     G     H     J

AEA             OF     H                     K


a      a     s    (I'   Y     71    s            K

Z     X    C     V     BAIM

Z X Z                  B   N M

X     i         P    v    iL

Text Box:  Text Box: Scroll barText Box: SYSTEM
Text Box: Text areaText Box: Line barText Box: DOCUMENT WINDOWText Box: Scroll up Thumb Scroll downText Box: Select character Select word ExtendText Box: Select paragraph (sets cursor to T)
Text Box: Select lineText Box: THE SCREEN	THE MOUSEText Box: WHAT MOUSE BUTTONS DOText Box: The blank key to the right of BS is called CLRText Box: What you can do next What you did last
file nan e
Text Box: NText Box: EText Box: BText Box: C O L

Delete selection                                                                                  During type in:

The following make a new paragraph if a paragraph is selected

Insert <text> before selection Append <text) after selection Replace selection by <text>

<text> can be typed or selected. ESC gets the current buffer. Buller n ESC makes buffer

Backspace character with BS or ctrl-A Backspace word with ctrl-W

Separate paragraphs with ctrl-CR Enter ctrl-Cchar> as <char> ctrl-S Enter TAB n as n with TAB held down

n current.

Text Box: Hardcopy to print. Options:
ESC gets you one already there.
Get to read in a file

Text Box: FILINGctrl-Z for unformatted text

Put to write out a file

File name goes into bar above window

Text Box: Diablo output, with sub-options: Space to start or abort Start on page n	Continuous printing
Reprint last page
Copies n Ears tile

CR to do it

Can edit file name like any other text_


Undo works on most recent command

ESC repeals most recent command, using current selection. Everything selects whole document.

Normalize moves current selection to top of window.

[             e ' " put indicated brackets around current selection.

) -I I i extend current selection to closest matching brackets.

LF takes current selection as top of page. and moves selection to top of next page.

DEL cancels what you are doing. Out CR exits from Bravo

Time inserts current date and time. But ler 123 <text> sets buffer and

makes it current. ESC instead of

<text> just makes it current.

Text Box: Basic looks.	Mostly, SHIFT means NOT. Thus. Look b turns on bold. Look 13 turns it off.
As a number:	in points (72 'inch) - 123 or 123 pt.
in inches - 4.5 or 4.5" or 4.5 in in cm - 4.5 cm
As the left edge of a character:	select with RED
Copied from an existing paragraph: select with YELLOW As a position on the screen: point with BLUE
Text Box: italic	ES overstrike	justified
visible	-/t sub/superscript	nested (indent)
graphic	>/< upper/lower case	open - add 12 pis space before paragraph
0-9 ford	CLR to reset	q - add 6 pts space before paragraph
; document profile
Text Box: Distances (measured from left or bottom page edge):
In blank widths - type that many blanks
As an increment to current value:	or - followed by a number as above
Defaulted to a standard value: type \-
Text Box: Look Same <selection) sets all text looks of current selection to be the same as those of <selection> Look All <selection> sets all paragraph looks of current selection to be the same as those of <selection> Look ? displays looks 01 selected text or paragraph in buffer 3.
Look hardcopy makes screen match hard-copy with 10'!., magnification.	Look	Hardcopy clears it.
Look Magnify n does Look hardcopy with n0".- magnification.	Look	Maanity Diablo n matches Diablo hardcopy.
Text Box: Private Data Stamp: Yes No	X:d Y:d
Coarransm Edge Margin:el Between Colamns:d
Margins: Top:d Bottom:d Binding:d
Lille Numbers: Yes: No Modulusm Page-relative First Line:n
Text Box: Page Numbers' Yes No X	Y:d Fir st Page: n Roman Uppercase Not -on- f it st-page
Hear-boa or Odd Even Hearling: Nnt-on-first-pale followed by a heading paragraph_ also mei profile property
Text Box: LOOKSText Box: Standard Fonts
There are samples in the manual
Text Box: 0 Times Roman 10
1 Times Roman 8
2	Logo
3	Math 10
4	Hippo 10
5 Times Roman 12
6	Helvetica 10
7	Helvetica 8
8	Gacha 10
9	Helvetica 18
Text Box: PAGE
Text Box: pe-in.
Left margin; default 85 pt
F - left margin of first line
P - left margin of other lines
Right margin: default 527 pt
X - space between lines; default 6 pt
Y - space between paragraphs; default 12 p1 Z - vertical tab: default none
Keep on current page; default 0; 11" forces new page
Tddn- sets n stops for table
TAB n d sets tab n; default not set
TAB = d sets even tab stops, default 36 pt
Text Box: (1 is a distance: use - to measure horn top or right ctrl-L causes page (or col) break alter current line Use two ctrl-Ls for page break with multiple cols Also note Look Keep and Look Z (vertical tab)Window -RED             to move boundary                                                Kill                      RED        to merge with window above

WINDOWS                         YELLOW      to spur (make new subwindow)                                                        YELLOW to erase contents. leave the window

BLUE            to make nevi window                                                                     BLUE       to merge with window below
Window Edge <Oslo-ice> acts the leil edge of the window 31 the specified point on the page; the default is 85 pt.

Jump <text> starts search at second line, doesn't move selection

SEARCHES               Find <text> starts search alter current selection. moves selection to the string bound

Substitute <text> for <text> - works on the current selection. Usually you want to do Everything first. Yes is equivalent to Replace ESC Find ESC; use Yes when you want to confirm substitutions.

>Bravobug will start a replay.                  ' allavobug/F1 will report a bug to the Bravo mairilainers first. Then replay.

REPLAY           Space will stop the replay and show you the number of the next command. You can then type:

Slow to slow down typein          Space to replay one more command                      Break n to slop before command n

Quick to speed it up                 Proceed to continue replay lull speed                      Terminate CR to stop replaying

Operators are a= -        ii, / \(enter). Art operator as a command combines the selection with the top of slack.

ARITHMETIC         Also:        '- exchanges x and y                         Calculator, with options:     Fixed                   operator to operate on x and y
You can also type a number, followed by an operator. The stack is just like the one in a Hewlelt-Packard calculator.

I rotates the stack                                                                 Scientific              0-9 ID set ragas atter decimal rat

Ell<pileQf int]              Radix n to set the radix (isti lor her)



Markup User's Manual

Table of Contents

1.      Introduction                                                                                                                                         60

2.      Things to know before you start                                                                         60

3.      Use of Markup                                                                                                  61

How to obtain Markup                                                                                        61

How to start Markup                                                                                           61

The mouse                                                                                                          61

The menu                                                                                                           62

The top row of menu symbols: freehand drawing                                                 62

The second and third rows: line drawings                                                            63

Text                                                                                                                   63

Image areas                                                                                                         64

Erasing and inserting image areas                                                                        64

Retrieving from memory                                                                                      65

Images and text                                                                                                  65

Changing the grid                                                                                               65

Inversion and fast erasing                                                                                   66

Rotation and scaling                                                                                           66

Image files                                                                                                          67

Turning the page                                                                                                 67

Finishing                                                                                                            67

Camera Input                                                                                                      67

4.      Markup Techniques                                                                                          68

Disk space                                                                                                          68

Use of existing illustrations                                                                69

For faster copying                                                                            69

Recovery from a full disk                                                                                     69

Printing                                                                                        70

Ears hard-copy                                                                                                   70

SLOT/3100 hard-copy                                                                                           70

Examples                                                                                                                  71

1.           Introduction

Markup is an Alto program for document illustration. Its basic purpose is to permit you to add illustrations to an existing formatted text document. It can also be used to prepare visual aids, and to manipulate illustrations prepared with other illustration programs, such as DRAW.

The purpose of this manual is to explain how to use Markup. Effective use of Markup involves three different kinds of issues. In the first place, there are things you must know before you start to use Markup; then there are the individual commands of Markup, and their effects, which you must learn; finally, there are a great many 'tricks' that you will find useful if you make extensive use of Markup. This manual is concerned mainly with issues of the first two kinds, those that you will need to understand in order to use Markup. The final section of this manual discusses some of the 'tricks' that fall into the third          category.

2.           Things to know before you start

Markup manipulates dots. The commands in Markup are almost all oriented towards helping you to manipulate the dots that make up the picture on the screen. With enough patience and skill, you could use Markup to build entire pictures out of individual dots, as if you were a Pointillist painter. On the assumption that you don't have the time for this, Markup gives you more powerful commands for manipulating whole collections of dots. Thus you can with a single command lay down a straight line of dots, or an entire rectangular area. Even after you have used one of these commands, the picture remains a collection of dots, each of which can still be individually modified.

Markup treats dots and text separately. Markup knows how to deal with text: it will accept formatted text from Bravo and other such programs, or simple text strings placed with the mouse. Text is, however, treated differently from dots. You use different commands to manipulate the two different types of information.

Markup is for marking up documents. In other words, Markup expects you to provide the initial document for marking up. If you don't have anything with which to start, Markup will provide you with something analogous to a single blank sheet of paper. If you do have a document from which to start, Markup will let you add more pages to it. Basically, however, Markup expects you to provide a document as a starting point.

Markup works with Press files. In the world of the Alto, there are many different sorts of file formats: Bravo files, Ears files, Draw files and plain ordinary text files. Most of these are for use with a specific program -- Bravo files with Bravo, Ears files for printing on Ears, and so on. Press format is rather different: it is supposed to be suitable for all kinds of program, whe