We show how the use of unlabelled data&emdash;samples from the marginal distributions p(z) and p(θ)&em;may be used to improve fitting. This is valuable because it is often significantly easier to obtain unlabelled than labelled samples. We use a Gaussian process latent variable model to learn the mapping from a shared latent low-dimensional manifold to the feature and parameter spaces. This extends existing approaches to (a) use unlabelled data, and (b) represent one-to-many mappings.
Experiments on synthetic and real problems demonstrate how the use of unlabelled data improves over existing techniques. In our comparisons, we include existing approaches that are explicitly semi-supervised as well as those which implicitly make use of unlabelled examples.