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TEM - Context and Critique

People and communities across the world use, are affected by, and can shape the evolution of information and communication technologies. Research at TEM draws on social-scientific and humanities approaches—particularly ethnographic methods—to explore tensions, opportunities, and complexities of sociotechnical systems in resource-constrained settings.


Mobile-Centric Internet Use

For many people in the developing world, the mobile phone will be the first, primary, or only means of accessing the internet. TEM explores "mobile centric" internet use by:


ICT use by Micro and Small Enterprises

ICTs are transforming markets and increase economic opportunity, particularly for hundreds of millions of micro- and small- enterprises throughout the developing world. TEM studies include:


Participation and Inclusion

Mobile and other digital media create new opportunities and channels for citizen participation in politics, civil society, and culture. TEM explores this promise by:


Household Media Ecologies

Household practices around media and computing are changing as new technologies are adopted by families around the world. TEM looks at these micro-ecologies through studies of:

Reviews and Methods

ICT4D is a multidisciplinary and dynamic field. TEM researchers contribute to its evolution and best practice through meta-reviews, theoretical pieces, and methods papers such as:

Other themes

TEM has also offered contextual analysis and critique on other topics, including the use and design of mobile money systems. Recently we have begun to look at non-instrumental use of ICTs in the workplace.

TEM Publications Related to Context & Critique

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