Unbundling Transaction Services in the Cloud

The traditional architecture for a DBMS engine has the recovery, concurrency control and access method code tightly bound together in a storage engine for records. We propose a different approach, where the storage engine is factored into two layers (each of which might have multiple heterogeneous instances). A Transactional Component (TC) works at a logical level only: it knows about transactions and their ―logical concurrency control and undo/redo recovery, but it does not know about page layout, B-trees etc. A Data Component (DC) knows about the physical storage structure. It supports a record oriented interface that provides atomic operations, but it does not know about transactions. Providing atomic record operations may itself involve DC-local concurrency control and recovery, which can be implemented using system transactions. The interaction of the mechanisms in TC and DC leads to multi-level redo (unlike the repeat history paradigm for redo in integrated engines). This refactoring of the system architecture could allow easier deployment of application-specific physical structures and may also be helpful to exploit multi-core hardware. Particularly promising is its potential to enable flexible transactions in cloud database deployments. We describe the necessary principles for unbundled recovery, and discuss implementation issues.

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