Deva Ramanan, Simon Baker, and Sham Kakade
We introduce a semi-supervised method for building large, labeled datasets of faces by leveraging archival video.
Specifically, we have implemented a system for labeling 11 years worth of archival footage from a television show. We have compiled a dataset of 611,770 faces, orders of magnitude larger than existing collections. It includes variation in appearance due to age, weight gain, changes in hairstyles, and other factors difficult to observe in smaller-scale collections. Face recognition in an uncontrolled setting can be difficult.
We argue (and demonstrate) that there is much structure at varying timescales in the video data that make recognition much easier. At local time scales, one can use motion and tracking to group face images together - we may not know the identity, but we know a single label applies to all faces in a track. At medium time scales (say, within a scene), one can use appearance features such as hair and clothing to group tracks across shot boundaries. However, at longer timescales (say, across episodes), one can no longer use clothing as a cue. This suggests that one needs to carefully encode representations of appearance, depending on the timescale at which one intends to match.
We assemble our final dataset by classifying groups of tracks in a nearest-neighbors framework. We use a face library obtained by labeling track clusters in a reference episode. We show that this classification is significantly easier when exploiting the hierarchical structure naturally present in the video sequences.
From a data-collection point of view, tracking is vital because it adds non-frontal poses to our face collection. This is important because we know of no other method for collecting images of non-frontal faces “in the wild”.
|Published in||Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision|
|Publisher||IEEE Computer Society|
Copyright © 2007 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Computer Society. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to firstname.lastname@example.org. By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it.