HongJiang Zhang, Aditya Vailaya, and Anil Jain
We present an algorithm for automatic image orientation estimation using a Bayesian learning framework. We demonstrate that a small codebook (the optimal size of codebook is selected using a modified MDL criterion) extracted from a vector quantizer can be used to estimate the class-conditional densities of the observed features needed for the Bayesian methodology. We further show how feature clustering can be used as a featue selection mechanism to remove redundancies in the high dimensional feature vectors used for classification. Experiments on a a database of 17,901 images have shown that our proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of approximately 97% on the training set and over 89% on an independent test set.
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Publisher Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
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