Alessandro Bergamo, Sudipta Sinha, and Lorrenzo Torresani
In this paper we propose a new technique for learning a discriminative codebook for local feature descriptors, specifically designed for scalable landmark classification. The key contribution lies in exploiting the knowledge of correspondences within sets of feature descriptors during codebook learning. Feature correspondences are obtained using structure from motion (SfM) computation on Internet photo collections which serve as the training data. Our codebook is defined by a random forest that is trained to map corresponding feature descriptors into identical codes. Unlike prior forest-based codebook learning methods, we utilize fine-grained descriptor labels and address the challenge of training a forest with an extremely large number of labels. Our codebook is used with various existing feature encoding schemes and also a variant we propose for importance-weighted aggregation of local features. We evaluate our approach on a public dataset of 25 landmarks and our new dataset of 620 landmarks (614K images). Our approach significantly outperforms the state of the art in landmark classification. Furthermore, our method is memory efficient and scalable.
In Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR)