Clemens Kolbitsch, Benjamin Livshits, Benjamin Zorn, and Christian Seifert
25 October 2011
While static and runtime methods for malware detection have been proposed in the literature, both on the client side, for just-in-time in-browser detection, as well as offline, crawler-based malware discovery, these approaches encounter the same fundamental limitation. Web-based malware tends to be environment-specific, targeting a particular browser, often attacking specific versions of installed plugins. This targeting occurs because the malware exploits vulnerabilities in specific plugins and fail otherwise. As a result, a fundamental limitation for detecting a piece of malware is that malware is triggered infrequently, only showing itself when the right environment is present. In fact, we observe that using current fingerprinting techniques, just about any piece of existing malware may be made virtually undetectable with the current generation of malware scanners.
Paruj Ratanaworabhan, Benjamin Livshits, and Benjamin G. Zorn. Nozzle: A Defense Against Heap-spraying Code Injection Attacks, November 2008.
Paruj Ratanaworabhan, Benjamin Livshits, and Benjamin Zorn. Nozzle: A Defense Against Heap-spraying Code Injection Attacks, USENIX, 2009.