Enriching Textbooks with Images

Rakesh Agrawal, Sreenivas Gollapudi, Anitha Kannan, and Krishnaram Kenthapadi


Textbooks have a direct bearing on the quality of education imparted to the students. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that the educational content of textbooks should provide rich learning experience to the students. Recent studies on understanding learning behavior suggest that the incorporation of digital visual material can greatly enhance learning. However, textbooks used in many developing regions are largely text-oriented and lack good visual material. We propose techniques for finding images from the web that are most relevant for augmenting a section of the textbook, while respecting the constraint that the same image is not repeated in different sections of the same chapter. We devise a rigorous formulation of the image assignment problem and present a polynomial time algorithm for solving the problem optimally. We also present two image mining algorithms that utilize orthogonal signals and hence obtain different sets of relevant images. Finally, we provide an ensembling algorithm for combining the assignments. To empirically evaluate our techniques, we use a corpus of high school textbooks in use in India. Our user study utilizing the Amazon Mechanical Turk platform indicates that the proposed techniques are able to obtain images that can help increase the understanding of the textbook material.


Publication typeInproceedings
Published inInternational Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM)
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