Lattice agreement is a key decision problem in distributed systems. In this problem, processes propose values from a lattice, and must learn (non-trivial) values that form a chain. Unlike consensus, which is impossible in the presence of even a single process failure, lattice agreement has been shown to be decidable in the presence of failures. In this paper, we consider lattice agreement problems in asynchronous, message passing systems. We present an algorithm for the lattice agreement problem that guarantees liveness as long as a majority of the processes are non-faulty. The algorithm has a time complexity of O(N) message delays, where N is the number of processes. We then introduce the generalized lattice agreement problem, where each process proposes a (potentially unbounded) sequence of values from an infinite lattice and must learn a sequence of increasing values such that the union of all learnt sequences is a chain and every proposed value is eventually learnt. We present a wait-free algorithm for solving generalized lattice agreement. The algorithm guarantees that every value received by a correct process is learnt in O(N) message delays. We show that this algorithm can be used to implement a class of replicated state machines where (a) commands can be classified as reads and updates, and (b) all update commands commute. This algorithm can be used to realize serializable and linearizable replicated versions of commonly used data types.

}, author = {Jose Faleiro and Sriram Rajamani and Kaushik Rajan and G Ramalingam and Kapil Vaswani}, booktitle = {Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC)}, month = {July}, publisher = {ACM}, title = {Generalized Lattice Agreement}, url = {http://research.microsoft.com/apps/pubs/default.aspx?id=163158}, year = {2012}, }