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Efficient Human Pose Estimation from Single Depth Images

Jamie Shotton, Ross Girshick, Andrew Fitzgibbon, Toby Sharp, Mat Cook, Mark Finocchio, Richard Moore, Pushmeet Kohli, Antonio Criminisi, Alex Kipman, and Andrew Blake


We describe two new approaches to human pose estimation. Both can quickly and accurately predict the 3D positions of body joints from a single depth image, without using any temporal information. The key to both approaches is the use of a large, realistic, and highly varied synthetic set of training images. This allows us to learn models that are largely invariant to factors such as pose, body shape, field-of-view cropping, and clothing. Our first approach employs an intermediate body parts representation, designed so that an accurate per-pixel classification of the parts will localize the joints of the body. The second approach instead directly regresses the positions of body joints. By using simple depth pixel comparison features, and parallelizable decision forests, both approaches can run super-realtime on consumer hardware. Our evaluation investigates many aspects of our methods, and compares the approaches to each other and to the state of the art. Results on silhouettes suggest broader applicability to other imaging modalities.


Publication typeArticle
Published inTrans. PAMI

Newer versions

Jonathan Taylor, Jamie Shotton, Toby Sharp, and Andrew Fitzgibbon. The Vitruvian Manifold: Inferring Dense Correspondences for One-Shot Human Pose Estimation, IEEE, June 2012.

Previous versions

Ross Girshick, Jamie Shotton, Pushmeet Kohli, Antonio Criminisi, and Andrew Fitzgibbon. Efficient Regression of General-Activity Human Poses from Depth Images, IEEE, October 2011.

Jamie Shotton, Andrew Fitzgibbon, Mat Cook, Toby Sharp, Mark Finocchio, Richard Moore, Alex Kipman, and Andrew Blake. Real-Time Human Pose Recognition in Parts from a Single Depth Image, IEEE, June 2011.

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