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Algorithms and theory47205 (235)
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Shuo Ma, Yu Zheng, and Ouri Wolfson

We proposed and developed a taxi-sharing system that accepts taxi passengers’ real-time ride requests sent from smartphones and schedules proper taxis to pick up them via ridesharing, subject to time, capacity, and monetary constraints. The monetary constraints provide incentives for both passengers and taxi drivers: passengers will not pay more compared with no ridesharing and get compensated if their travel time is lengthened due to ridesharing; taxi drivers will make money for all the detour distance...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
Puyang Xu and Ruhi Sarikaya

In a multi-domain, multi-turn spoken language understanding session, information from the history often greatly reduces the ambiguity of the current turn. In this paper, we apply the recurrent neural network (RNN) to exploit contextual information for query domain classification. The Jordan-type RNN directly sends the vector of output distribution to the next query turn as additional input features to the convolutional neural network (CNN). We evaluate our approach against SVM with and without...

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
Neha Gupta, David Martin, Ben Hanrahan, and Jacki O'Neill

Previous studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), the most well-known marketplace for microtasks, show that the largest population of workers on AMT is U.S. based, while the second largest is based in India. In this paper, we present insights from an ethnographic study conducted in India to introduce some of these workers or ‘Turkers’ – who they are, how they work and what turking means to them. We examine the work they do to maintain their reputations and their work-life balance. In doing this, we...

Publication details
Date: 9 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork
Azadeh Forghani, Gina Venolia, and Kori Inkpen
Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Akash Lal and Shaz Qadeer

he application of software-verification technology towards building realistic bug-finding tools requires working through several precision-scalability tradeoffs. For instance, a critical aspect while dealing with C programs is to formally define the treatment of pointers and the heap (usually termed as the “memory model”). A machine-level modeling is often intractable, whereas one that leverages high-level information (such as types) can be inaccurate. Another tradeoff is modeling integer...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Seungwon Kim, Sasa Junuzovic, and Kori Inkpen

Mobile videoconferencing is increasingly being used to bring remote friends or family along to an activity happening outside the home, such as shopping or visiting a tourist attraction. We explored how including contextual information of the event, in addition to audio and video of the person at the event, impacts the shared experience. We studied three kinds of information: a map showing the position of the person at the activity, a second live video showing what was in front of that person, and a...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Pengfei Wan, Gene Cheung, Dinei Florencio, Cha Zhang, and Oscar Au

While modern displays offer high dynamic range (HDR) with large bit-depth for each rendered pixel, the bulk of legacy image and video contents were captured using cameras with shallower bit-depth. In this paper, we study the bit-depth enhancement problem for images, so that a high bit-depth (HBD) image can be reconstructed from an input low bit-depth (LBD) image. The key idea is to apply appropriate smoothing given the constraints that reconstructed signal must lie within the per-pixel quantization...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Cha Zhang, Dinei Florencio, and Charles Loop

Compressing attributes on 3D point clouds such as colors or normal directions has been a challenging problem, since these attribute signals are unstructured. In this paper, we propose to compress such attributes with graph transform. We construct graphs on small neighborhoods of the point cloud by connecting nearby points, and treat the attributes as signals over the graph. The graph transform, which is equivalent to Kahunen-Loeve Transform on such graphs, is then adopted to decorrelate the signal....

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Andrew Baumann, Marcus Peinado, and Galen Hunt

To appear.

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: USENIX – Advanced Computing Systems Association
Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: European Association for Theoretical Computer Science
Malcolm Slaney and Michael L. Seltzer

Most features used for speech recognition are derived from the output of a filterbank inspired by the auditory system. The two most commonly used filter shapes are the triangular filters used in MFCC (mel-frequency cepstral coefficients) and the gammatone filters that model psychoacoustic critical bands. However, for both of these filterbanks there are free parameters that must be chosen by the system designer. In this paper, we explore the effect that different parameter settings have on the...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Ubicomp
Dan Liebling and Sören Preibusch

Multiple vendors now provide relatively inexpensive desktop eye and gaze tracking devices. ith miniatureization and decreasing manufacturing costs, gaze trackers will follow the path of webcams, becoming ubiquitous and inviting many of the same privacy concerns. However, whereas the privacy loss from webcams may be obvious to the user, gaze tracking is more opaque and deserves special attention. In this paper, we review current research in gaze tracking and pupillometry and argue that gaze data should...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Daniel J. Liebling and Susan T. Dumais

Gaze tracking technology is increasingly common in desktop, laptop and mobile scenarios. Most previous research on eye gaze patterns during human-computer interaction has been confined to controlled laboratory studies. In this paper we present an in situ study of gaze and mouse coordination as participants went about their normal activities. We analyze the coordi-nation between gaze and mouse, showing that gaze often leads the mouse, but not as much as previously reported, and in ways that depend on the...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Chloe Brown, Christos Efstratiou, Ilias Leontiadis, Daniele Quercia, Cecilia Mascolo, James Scott, and Peter Key

The layouts of the buildings we live in shape our everyday lives. In office environments, building spaces affect employees’ communication, which is crucial for productivity and innovation. However, accurate measurement of how spatial layouts affect interactions is a major challenge and traditional techniques may not give an objective view.

We measure the impact of building spaces on social interactions using wearable sensing devices. We study a single organization that moved between two...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Yan Huang, Malcolm Slaney, Michael L. Seltzer, and Yifan Gong

Modeling heterogeneous data sources remains a fundamental challenge of acoustic modeling in speech recognition. We call this the multi-condition problem because the speech data come from many different conditions. In this paper, we introduce the fundamental confusability problem in multi-condition learning, then discuss the problem formalization, the taxonomy, and the architectures for multi-condition learning. While the ideas presented are applicable to all classifiers, we focus our attention in this...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Swati Rallapalli, Aishwarya Ganesan, Krishna Chintalapudi, Venkata Padmanabhan, and Lili Qiu

We consider the problem of tracking physical browsing by users in indoor spaces such as retail stores. Analogous to online browsing, where users choose to go to certain webpages, dwell on a subset of pages of interest to them, and click on links of interest while ignoring others, we can draw parallels in the physical setting, where a user might "walk" purposefully to a section of interest, "dwell" there for a while, "gaze" at specific items, and "reach out" for the ones that they wish to examine more...

Publication details
Date: 7 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Nathan Silberman, Lior Shapira, Ran Gal, and Pushmeet Kohli

The availability of commodity depth sensors such as Kinect has enabled development of methods which can densely reconstruct arbitrary scenes. While the results of these methods are accurate and visually appealing, they are quite often incomplete. This is either due to the fact that only part of the space was visible during the data capture process or due to the surfaces being occluded by other objects in the scene. In this paper, we address the problem of completing and refining such reconstructions. We...

Publication details
Date: 6 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: Springer
Lior Shapira, Ran Gal, Eyal Ofek, and Pushmeet Kohli

Creating a layout for an augmented reality (AR) application which embeds virtual objects in a physical environment is difficult as it must adapt to any physical space. We propose a rule-based framework for generating object layouts for AR applications. Under our framework, the developer of an AR application specifies a set of rules (constraints) which enforce self-consistency (rules regarding the inter-relationships of application components) and scene consistency (application components are consistent...

Publication details
Date: 6 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Kshipra Bhawalkar, Sreenivas Gollapudi, and Debmalya Panigrahi

We consider a generic online allocation problem that generalizes the classical online set cover framework by considering requests comprising a set of elements rather than a single element. This problem has multiple applications in cloud computing, crowd sourcing, facility planning, etc. Formally, it is an online covering problem where each online step comprises an offline covering problem. In addition, the covering sets are capacitated, leading to packing constraints. We give a randomized algorithm for...

Publication details
Date: 4 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
Chieh-Jan Mike Liang, Nicholas D. Lane, Niels Brouwers, Li Zhang, Börje F. Karlsson, Hao Liu, Yan Liu, Jun Tang, Xiang Shan, Ranveer Chandra, and Feng Zhao

Scalable and comprehensive testing of mobile apps is extremely challenging. Every test input needs to be run with a variety of contexts, such as: device heterogeneity, wireless network speeds, locations, and unpredictable sensor inputs. The range of values for each context, e.g. location, can be very large. In this paper we present Caiipa, a cloud service for testing apps over an expanded mobile context space in a scalable way. It incorporates key techniques to make app testing more tractable, including...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Zichao Qi, Yanghua Xiao, Bin Shao, and Haixun Wang
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Very Large Data Bases Endowment Inc.
Michael Levit, Sarangarajan Parthasarathy, Shuangyu Chang, Andreas Stolcke, and Benoit Dumoulin

We present a modification of the traditional n-gram language modeling approach that departs from the word-level data representation and seeks to re-express the training text in terms of tokens that could be either words, common phrases or instances of one or several classes. Our iterative optimization algorithm considers alternative parses of the corpus in terms of these tokens, re-estimates token n-gram probabilities and also updates within-class distributions. In this paper, we focus on the cold start...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Xuxu Chen, Yu Zheng, Yubiao Chen, Qiwei Jin, Weiwei Sun, Eric Chang, and Wei-Ying Ma

Many developing countries are suffering from air pollution, especially the Particulate Matter with diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). While quite a few air quality monitoring stations have been built by governments in a city’s public areas, the indoor PM2.5 has not yet been monitored and dealt with effectively. Though many office buildings have a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, PM2.5 is not considered as a factor when the system circulates fresh air from outdoors....

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Liqun Li, Guobin Shen, Chunshui Zhao, Thomas Moscibroda, Jyh-Han Lin, and Feng Zhao

Diversity in training data density and environment locality is intrinsic in the real-world deployment of indoor localization systems and has a major impact on the performance of existing localization approaches. In this paper, through micro-benchmarks, we find that fingerprint-based approaches are preferable in scenarios where a dense database is available; while model-based approaches are the method of choice in the case of sparse data. It should be noted, however, that practical situations are...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
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