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Liwen Xu, Xiaohong Hao, Nicholas D. Lane, Xin Liu, and Thomas Moscibroda

Mobile crowdsourcing is a powerful tool for collecting data of various types. The primary bottleneck in such systems is the high burden placed on the user who must manually collect sensor data or respond in-situ to simple queries (e.g., experience sampling studies). In this work, we present Compressive CrowdSensing (CCS) – a framework that enables compressive sensing techniques to be applied to mobile crowdsourcing scenarios. CCS enables each user to provide significantly reduced amounts of manually...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Yu Zheng

The advances in location-acquisition and mobile computing techniques have generated massive spatial trajectory data, which represent the mobility of a diversity of moving objects, such as people, vehicles and animals. Many techniques have been proposed for processing, managing and mining trajectory data in the past decade, fostering a broad range of applications. In this article, we conduct a systematic survey on the major research into trajectory data mining, providing a panorama of the field...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Young-Bum Kim, Karl Stratos, Ruhi Sarikaya, and Minwoo Jeong

In natural language understanding (NLU), a user utterance can be labeled differently depending on the domain or application (e.g., weather vs. calendar). Standard domain adaptation techniques are not directly applicable to take advantage of the existing annotations because they assume that the label set is invariant. We propose a solution based on label embeddings induced from canonical correlation analysis (CCA) that reduces the problem to a standard domain adaptation task and allows use of a number of...

Publication details
Date: 29 August 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Young-Bum Kim, Karl Stratos, Xiaohu Liu, and Ruhi Sarikaya

In this paper, we introduce the task of selecting compact lexicon from large, noisy gazetteers.
This scenario arises often in practice, in particular spoken language understanding (SLU).
We propose a simple and effective solution based on matrix decomposition techniques:
canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and rank-revealing QR (RRQR) factorization. CCA is first used to derive low-dimensional gazetteer embeddings from domain-specific search logs. Then RRQR is used to find a subset of...

Publication details
Date: 27 August 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Dan Alistarh, Rati Gelashvili, and Adrian Vladu

The problem of electing a leader from among n contenders is one of the fundamental questions in distributed computing. In its simplest formulation, the task is as follows: given n processors, all participants must eventually return a win or lose indication, such that a single contender may win. Despite a considerable amount of work on leader election, the following question is still open: can we elect a leader in an asynchronous fault-prone system faster than...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Dan Alistarh and Rati Gelashvili

Population protocols are networks of finite-state agents, interacting randomly, and updating their state using simple rules. Despite their extreme simplicity, these systems have been shown to cooperatively perform complex computational tasks, such as simulating register machines to compute standard arithmetic functions. The election of a unique leader agent is a key requirement in such computational constructions. Yet, the fastest currently known population protocol for electing a leader only...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Springer
Loris D’Antoni and Margus Veanes

Symbolic finite automata and transducers augment classic automata and transducers with symbolic alphabets represented as parametric theories. This extension enables to succinctly represent large and potentially infinite alphabets while preserving closure and decidability properties. Extended symbolic finite automata and transducers further extend these objects by allowing transitions to read consecutive input elements in a single step. In this paper we study the properties of these models. In contrast...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Springer
Dan Alistarh, Milan Vojnovic, and Rati Gelashvili

Population protocols, roughly defined as systems consisting of large numbers of simple identical agents, interacting at random and updating their state following simple rules, are an important research topic at the intersection of distributed computing and biology. One of the fundamental tasks that a population protocol may solve is majority: each node starts in one of two states; the goal is for all nodes to reach a correct consensus on which of the two states was initially the majority....

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Dan Alistarh, Thomas Sauerwald, and Milan Vojnovic

In this work, we consider the following random process, motivated by the analysis of lock-free concurrent algorithms under high memory contention. In each round, a new scheduling step is allocated to one of $n$ threads, according to a distribution $\vect{p} = (p_1, p_2, \ldots, p_n)$, where thread $i$ is scheduled with probability $p_i$. When some thread first reaches a set threshold of executed steps, it registers a \emph{win}, completing its current operation, and resets its step count to $1$. At...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Woodhouse S., Piterman N., Koksal A., and Fisher J.
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: Springer
Daniel Delling, Julian Dibbelt, Thomas Pajor, and Renato F. Werneck

We study the journey planning problem in public transit networks. Developing efficient preprocessing-based speedup techniques for this problem has been challenging: current approaches either require massive preprocessing effort or provide limited speedups. Leveraging recent advances in Hub Labeling, the fastest algorithm for road networks, we revisit the well-known time-expanded model for public transit. Exploiting domain-specific properties, we provide simple and efficient algorithms for the earliest...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Springer
ishai menache and mohit singh

Modern software applications and services operate nowadays on top of large clusters and datacenters. To reduce the underlying infrastructure cost and increase utilization, different services share the same physical resources (e.g., CPU, bandwidth, I/O, memory). Consequently, the cluster provider often has to decide in real-time how to allocate resources in overbooked systems, taking into account the different characteristics and requirements of users. In this paper, we consider an important problem...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha

Shpilka and Wigderson [SW99] had posed the problem of proving exponential lower bounds for (nonhomogeneous) depth three arithmetic circuits with bounded bottom fanin over a field F of characteristic zero. We resolve this problem by proving a NOmega(d/t) lower bound for (nonhomogeneous) depth three arithmetic circuits with bottom fanin at most t computing an explicit N-variate polynomial of degree d over F.

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: LIPICS
Bo Zong, Christos Gkantsidis, and Milan Vojnovic

We study the problem of placing streaming queries into servers. Unlike previous work, we focus on queries that consume events of relative low rates, each computed in a single server (i.e. no scaling out per query). However, we need to place a very large and dynamic number of queries in relatively few servers. Our focus is motivated by the need to support a platform for hosting end-user streaming queries that may come from a variety of applications, such as the Cortana personal assistant.

The...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Article
Joppe W. Bos, Craig Costello, Michael Naehrig, and Douglas Stebila

Lattice-based cryptographic primitives are believed to offer resilience against attacks by quantum computers. We demonstrate the practicality of post-quantum key exchange by constructing ciphersuites for the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol that provide key exchange based on the ring learning with errors (R-LWE) problem; we accompany these ciphersuites with a rigorous proof of security. Our approach ties lattice-based key exchange together...

Publication details
Date: 18 May 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Dan Alistarh, Thomas Sauerwald, and Milan Vojnovic

In this work, we consider the following random process, motivated by the analysis of lock-free concurrent algorithms under stochastic schedulers. In each step, a new ball is allocated into one of $n$ bins, according to a distribution $\vect{p} = (p_1, p_2, \ldots, p_n)$, where each ball goes to bin $i$ with probability $p_i$. When some bin first reaches a set threshold of balls, it registers a \emph{win}, and resets its ball count to $1$. At the same time, bins whose ball count was close to the...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-41
Joppe W. Bos, Craig Costello, Patrick Longa, and Michael Naehrig

We select a set of elliptic curves for cryptography and analyze our selection from a performance and security perspective. This analysis complements recent curve proposals that suggest (twisted) Edwards curves by also considering the Weierstrass model. Working with both Montgomery-friendly and pseudo-Mersenne primes allows us to consider more possibilities which help to improve the overall efficiency of base field arithmetic. Our Weierstrass...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Springer
Jeong-Min Yun, Yuxiong He, Sameh Elnikety, and Shaolei Ren

A web search engine often employs partition-aggregate architecture, where an aggregator propagates a user query to all index serving nodes (ISNs) and collects the responses from them. An aggregation policy determines how long the aggregators wait for the ISNs before returning aggregated results to users, crucially affecting both query latency and quality. Designing an aggregation policy is, however, challenging: Response latency among queries and among ISNs varies significantly, and aggregators lack of...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-39
Liwen Xu, Xiaohong Hao, Nicholas Lane, Xin Liu, and Thomas Moscibroda

Compressive Sensing is a technique that can help to reduce the sampling rate of sensing tasks. In mobile crowdsensing applications or wireless sensor networks, the resource burden of collecting samples is often a major concern. Therefore, compressive sensing is a promising approach in such scenarios. An implicit assumption underlying compressive sensing--both in theory and its applications--is that every sample has the same cost: the goal is to reduce the number of samples while achieving a good...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Ying Yan, Jiaxing Zhang, Bojun Huang, Xuzhan Sun, Jiaqi Mu, Zheng Zhang, and Thomas Moscibroda

Computing outliers and related statistical aggregation functions from large-scale big data sources is a critical operation in many cloud computing scenarios, e.g. service quality assurance, fraud detection, or novelty discovery. Such problems commonly have to be solved in a distributed environment where each node only has a local slice of the entirety of the data. To process a query on the global data, each node must transmit its local slice of data or an aggregated subset thereof to a global aggregator...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Ankush Desai, Shaz Qadeer, Sriram Rajamani, and Sanjit Seshia

Liveness specifications on finite-state concurrent programs are checked using algorithms to detect reachable cycles in the state-transition graph of the program. We present new algorithms for cycle detection based on the idea of prioritized search via a delaying explorer. We present thorough evaluation of our algorithms on a variety of reactive asynchronous programs, including device drivers, distributed protocols, and other benchmarks culled from the research literature.

Publication details
Date: 25 March 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-28
Margus Veanes and Nikolaj Bjørner

We introduce symbolic tree automata as a generalization of finite tree automata with a parametric alphabet over any given background theory. We show that symbolic tree automata are closed under Boolean operations, and that the operations are effectively uniform in the given alphabet theory. This generalizes the corresponding classical properties known for finite tree automata.

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Elsevier
Number: 3
Neeraj Kayal and Chandan Saha

In a multi-k -ic depth three circuit every variable appears in at most k of the linear polynomials in every product gate of the circuit. This model is a natural generalization of multilinear depth three circuits that allows the formal degree of the circuit to exceed the number of underlying variables (as the formal degree of a multi-k-ic depth three circuit can be kn where n is the number of variables). The problem of proving lower bounds for depth three...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: LIPICS
Nathan Wiebe, Ashish Kapoor, and Krysta M. Svore

We present several quantum algorithms for performing nearest-neighbor learning. At the core of our algorithms are fast and coherent quantum methods for computing distance metrics such as the inner product and Euclidean distance. We prove upper bounds on the number of queries to the input data required to compute these metrics. In the worst case, our quantum algorithms lead to polynomial reductions in query complexity relative to the corresponding classical algorithm. In certain cases, we show...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Rinton Press
Number: 3&4
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