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Meghana Marathe, Jacki O’Neill, Paromita Pain, and William Thies

Helping citizens to resolve grievances is an important part of many e-governance initiatives. In this paper, we examine two contemporary initiatives that use ICTs to help citizens resolve grievances in central India. One system is a state-run call center (the CM Helpline), while the other is an independent citizen journalism service (CGNet Swara). Despite similarities in their high-level goals, approach, and geographies served, the systems have key differences in their use of technology, their level of...

Publication details
Date: 3 June 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Jacki O’Neill, Kentaro Toyama, Jay Chen, Berthel Tate, and Aysha Siddique

During the first decade of the 21 st century, the rise of mobile feature phones in India saw the development of both an economy of informal media exchange and a culture of active media sharing for entertainment. Mobile phone owners paid for pirated movies and music on the grey market, and they traded them with one another, even using poorly designed mechanisms such as Bluetooth file exchange.

In this paper, we update what is known about the dynamic mobile media sharing culture through qualitative...

Publication details
Date: 3 June 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Abhimanyu Das, Sreenivas Gollapudi, Emre Kıcıman, and Onur Varol

Individual’s motivations for participating in social networks can vary greatly, and this heterogeneity is reflected in the wide-variety of behaviors and communication styles we see in large social networks. In this paper, we present a first study of the basic properties of communication in a heterogeneous-intent network and their implications. First, through both user studies and large-scale data analyses, we validate that individual’s specific intents affect their style of communication and their selection...

Publication details
Date: 22 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed, Nicola J Bidwell, Himanshu Zade, Srihari H Muralidhar, Anupama Dhareshwar, Baneen Karachiwala, Tandong Neba Cedrick, and Jacki O’Neill

This paper contributes to the growing literature on peer-to-peer (P2P) applications through an ethnographic study of auto-rickshaw drivers in Bengaluru, India. We describe how the adoption of a P2P application, Ola, which connects passengers to rickshaws, changes drivers work practices. Ola is part of the ‘peer services’ phenomenon which enable new types of ad-hoc trade in labour, skills and goods. Auto-rickshaw drivers present an interesting case because prior to Ola few had used Smartphones or the...

Publication details
Date: 7 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Pablo J. Barrio, Daniel G. Goldstein, and Jake M. Hofman

How many guns are there in the United States? What is the incidence of breast cancer? Is a billion dollar budget cut large or small? Advocates of scientific and civic literacy are concerned with improving how people estimate and comprehend risks, measurements, and frequencies, but relatively little progress has been made in this direction. In this article we describe and test a framework to help people comprehend numerical measurements in everyday settings through simple sentences, termed perspectives,...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Gloria Mark, Shamsi Iqbal, Mary Czerwinski, Paul Johns, and Akane Sano

In HCI research, attention has focused on understanding external influences on workplace multitasking. We explore instead how multitasking might be influenced by individual factors: personality, stress, and sleep. Forty information workers' online activity was tracked over two work weeks. The median duration of online screen focus was 40 seconds. The personality trait of Neuroticism was associated with shorter online focus duration and Impulsivity-Urgency was associated with longer online focus...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Munmun De Choudhury, Emre Kıcıman, Mark Dredze, Glen Coppersmith, and Mrinal Kumar

History of mental illness is a major factor behind suicide risk and ideation. However research efforts toward characterizing and forecasting this risk is limited due to the paucity of information regarding suicide ideation, exacerbated by the stigma of mental illness. This paper fills gaps in the literature by developing a statistical methodology to infer which individuals could undergo transitions from mental health discourse to suicidal ideation. We utilize semi-anonymous support communities on Reddit...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Awards: Honorable Mention
Gloria Mark, Shamsi Iqbal, Mary Czerwinski, Paul Johns, and Akane Sano

While email has been shown to be beneficial in the workplace, studies have reported that extensive email use can bring costs. In this study we investigate exactly how time spent on email might be related to perceived productivity and stress in the workplace. We conducted a mixed methods approach using computer logging, biosensors and daily surveys with 40 information workers in their in situ workplace environments for two workweeks. We found that the more time employees spent on email, the...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM CHI 2016
Emma S. Spiro, J. Nathan Matias, and Andres Monroy-Hernandez

Appreciation systems―platforms for users to exchange thanks and praise―are becoming common in the workplace, where employees share appreciation, managers are notified, and aggregate scores are sometimes made visible. Who do people thank on these systems, and what do they expect from each other and their managers? After introducing the design affordances of 13 appreciation systems, we discuss a system we call Gratia, in use at a large multinational company for over four years. Using logs of...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Oliver Hinz, Shawndra Hill, and Ju-Young Kim

Timing online auctions to attract a large number of prospective buyers is important for sellers. This study examines whether online auction sellers need to account for exogenous effects like TV viewing when timing and predicting their auction results. An ongoing debate questions whether TV viewers can spread their attention across multiple devices while watching TV, for example, by concurrently shopping online or posting on social media. Recent research has focused on understanding cross-media effects;...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Article
Gloria Mark, Shamsi T. Iqbal, Mary Czerwinski, Paul Johns, and Akane Sano

While email provides numerous benefits in the workplace, it is unclear how patterns of email use might affect key workplace indicators of productivity and stress. We investigate how three email use patterns: duration, interruption habit, and batching, relate to perceived workplace productivity and stress. We tracked email usage with computer logging, biosensors and daily surveys for 40 information workers in their in situ workplace environments for 12 workdays. We found that the longer daily...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Charles Kiene, Andrés Monroy-Hernández, and Benjamin Mako Hill

We present a qualitative analysis of interviews with participants in the NoSleep community within Reddit where millions of fans and writers of horror fiction congregate. We explore how the community handled a massive, sudden, and sustained increase in new members. Although existing theory and stories like Usenet's infamous "Eternal September" suggest that large influxes of newcomers can hurt online communities, our interviews suggest that NoSleep survived without major incident. We propose that three...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Halley P Profita, Asta Roseway, and Mary Czerwinski

We explored the social acceptability and user experience of wearable form factors as a portable option for Bright Light Therapy (BLT). BLT remains the predominant therapy for Seasonal Affective Disorder despite a non-compliance rate of ~70% commonly attributed to the inconvenience of prolonged daily sitting in front of light boxes. To date, attempts to address convenience using wearable/portable light treatment options have been met with limited success for nuanced reasons (i.e., stigma, efficacy,...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: Pervasive Health 2016
Debaleena Chattopadhyay, Kenton O'Hara, Sean Rintel, and Roman Rädle

Slide presentations have long been stuck in a one-to-many paradigm, limiting audience engagement. Based on the concept of smartphone-based remote control of slide navigation, we present Office Social—a PowerPoint plugin and companion smartphone app that allows audience members qualified access to slides for personal review and, when the presenter enables it, public control over slide navigation. We studied the longitudinal use of Office Social across four meetings of a workgroup. We found that...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao, Paul Johns, Asta Roseway, and Mary Czerwinski

We present Tattio, a fabrication process that draws from current body decoration processes (i.e., jewelry like metallic temporary tattoos) for the creation of on skin technology. The fabrication process generates functional components such as NFC tags, circuitry, to Thermochromic tattoos, while maintaining the aesthetics and user experience of existing metallic temporary tattoos. The fabrication process is low cost, accessible and customizable; we seek to enable individuals to design, make, and wear...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM CHI 2016
Sean Rintel, Richard Harper, and Kenton O'Hara

This paper reports on how asynchronous mobile video messaging presents users with a challenge to doing ‘being ordinary’. 53 participants from three countries were recruited to try Skype Qik at launch for two weeks. Some participants embraced Skype Qik as a gift economy, emphasizing a special relationship enacted through crafted self-presentation. However, gift exchange makes up only a small proportion of conversation. Many participants struggled with the self-presentation obligations of video when...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Sean Rintel, Daniel Angus, and Richard Fitzgerald

During the 2011 UK public sector protests, controversy ignited over the “Miliband Loop”, an unedited video from a pool interview showing Labour leader Ed Miliband to have provided largely the same answer in response to six questions. The interviewer subsequently complained in a TwitLonger that the incident epitomized the clash of public relations and journalism. In this paper we unpack the practical production of the pool interview as a delamination of the interview-as-lived from the...

Publication details
Date: 17 April 2016
Type: Article
Publisher: Elsevier
Travis Martin, Jake M. Hofman, Amit Sharma, Ashton Anderson, and Duncan J. Watts

How predictable is success in complex social systems? In spite of a recent profusion of prediction studies that exploit online social and information network data, this question remains unanswered, in part because it has not been adequately specified. In this paper we attempt to clarify the question by presenting a simple stylized model of success that attributes prediction error to one of two generic sources: insufficiency of available data and/or models on the one hand; and inherent unpredictability...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2016
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Gloria Mark, Mary Czerwinski, Shamsi Iqbal, and Paul Johns

Positive wellbeing in the workplace is tied to better health. However, lack of wellbeing in the workplace is a serious problem in the U.S, is rising continually, and can lead to poor health conditions. In this study we investigate factors that might be associated with workplace wellbeing. We report on an in situ study in the workplace of 40 information workers whose mood was tracked for 12 days. We used a mixed-methods study using Fitbit actigraphs to measure sleep and physical activity,...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM Digital Health
Tauhidur Rahman, Mary Czerwinski, Ran Gilad-Bachrach, and Paul Johns

Various wearable sensors

capturing body vibration, jaw movement,

hand gesture, etc., have shown promise in detecting when one is

currently eating. However, based on existing literature and user

surveys conducted in this study, we argue that a Just-in-Time eating

intervention, triggered upon detecting a current eating event,

is sub-optimal. An eating intervention triggered at “About-to-Eat”

moments could provide users with a further opportunity to...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2016
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM Digital Health
Awards: Best paper award
Mary L. Gray, Siddharth Suri, Syed Shoaib Ali, and Deepti Kulkarni

The main goal of this paper is to show that crowdworkers collaborate to fulfill technical and social needs left by the platform they work on. That is, crowdworkers are not the independent, autonomous workers they are often assumed to be, but instead work within a social network of other crowdworkers. Crowdworkers collaborate with members of their networks to 1) manage the administrative overhead associated with crowdwork, 2) find lucrative tasks and reputable employers and 3) recreate the social...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2016
Type: Article
David Martin, Jacki O’Neill, Neha Gupta, and Benjamin V. Hanrahan

This paper examines how working in the global labour market of Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) impacts upon and is understood by two different groups of workers. To do this we report on two qualitative studies; one of US and another of Indian crowdworkers (or ‘Turkers ’) that we analysed from an ethnomethodological orientation. Our data is naturalistic and comes from a variety of sources – interviews, observations and forum posts – where Turkers describe their work, and their understandings of that work...

Publication details
Date: 13 January 2016
Type: Article
Publisher: Springer
Fernando Diaz, Michael Gamon, Jake Hofman, Emre Kıcıman, and David Rothschild

There is a large body of research on utilizing online activity as a survey of political opinion to predict real world election outcomes. There is considerably less work, however, on using this data to understand topic-specific interest and opinion amongst the general population and specific demographic subgroups, as currently measured by relatively expensive surveys. Here we investigate this possibility by studying a full census of all Twitter activity during the 2012 election cycle along with the...

Publication details
Date: 5 January 2016
Type: Article
Publisher: PLOS – Public Library of Science
Number: 1
Dan Goldstein, Hal E. Hershfield, and Shlomo Benartzi

Research on choice architecture is shaping policy around the world, touching on areas ranging from retirement economics to environmental issues. Recently, researchers and policy makers have started to pay more attention not just to choice architecture but also to information architecture: the format in which information is presented to people. Here, we investigate information architecture as it applies to consumption in retirement. Specifically, in three experiments, we examine how people react to lump...

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2015
Type: Article
Yoram Bachrach

Online social networks have changed the ways in which people communicate and interact, and have also impacted the business landscape. One recent trend is firms using online social networks as a part of the job hiring process. Firms scrutinize potential employees using their social network profiles, sometimes even seeking access to restricted parts of the profile, for example by demanding applicants to hand over their passwords.

We explore the key criteria and profile components that affect...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
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