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Algorithms and theory47205 (238)
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Nina Mishra, Ryen White, Samuel Ieong, and Eric Horvitz

We study time-critical search, where users have urgent information needs in the context of an acute problem. As examples, users may need to know how to stem a severe bleed, help a baby who is choking on a foreign object, or respond to an epileptic seizure. While time-critical situations and actions have been studied in the realm of decision-support systems, little has been done with time-critical search and retrieval, and little direct support is offered by search systems. Critical challenges with...

Publication details
Date: 10 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Isabelle Stanton, Samuel Ieong, and Nina Mishra

Circumlocution is when many words are used to describe what could be said with fewer, e.g., “a machine that takes moisture out of the air” instead of “dehumidifier”. Web search is a perfect backdrop for circumlocution where people struggle to name what they seek. In some domains, not knowing the correct term can have a significant impact on the search results that are retrieved. We study the medical domain, where professional medical terms are not commonly known and where the consequence of not...

Publication details
Date: 8 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Ryen W. White, Matthew Richardson, and Wen-tau Yih

Search systems have traditionally required searchers to formulate information needs as a set of keywords rather than in a more natural form, such as questions. Recent studies have found that search engines are observing an increase in the fraction of Web search queries that take the form of natural language. As part of building better search engines, it is important to understand the nature and prevalence of these intentions, and the impact of this increase on search engine performance and searcher...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-96
Marios Kokkodis, Anitha Kannan, and Krishnaram Kenthapadi

The emergence of tablet devices, cloud computing, and abundant online multimedia content presents new opportunities to transform traditional paper-based textbooks into tablet-based electronic textbooks, and to further augment the educational experience by enriching them with relevant supplementary materials. The use of multimedia content such as educational videos along with textual content has been shown to improve learning outcomes. While such videos are becoming increasingly available, even a highly...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-62
Edith Cohen

Random samples are lossy summaries which allow queries posed over the data to be approximated by applying an appropriate estimator to the sample. The effectiveness of sampling, however, hinges on estimator selection. The choice of estimators is subjected to global requirements, such as unbiasedness and range restrictions on the estimate value, and ideally, we seek estimators that are both efficient to derive and apply and admissible (not dominated, in terms of variance, by other estimators). ...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM
Marios Kokkodis, Anitha Kannan, and Krishnaram Kenthapadi

The emergence of tablet devices, cloud computing, and abundant online multimedia content presents new opportunities to transform traditional paper-based textbooks into tablet-based electronic textbooks. Towards this goal, techniques have been proposed to automatically augment textbook sections with relevant web content such as online educational videos. However, a highly relevant video can be created at a granularity that may not mimic the organization of the textbook. We focus on the video...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: International Educational Data Mining Society
Zhen Wang, Jianwen Zhang, Jianlin Feng, and Zheng Chen

We deal with embedding a large scale knowledge graph composed of entities and relations into a continuous vector space. TransE is a promising method proposed recently, which is very efficient while achieving state-of-the-art predictive performance. We discuss some mapping properties of relations which should be considered in embedding, such as reflexive, one-to-many, many-to-one, and many-to-many. We note that TransE does not do well in dealing with these properties. Some complex models are capable of...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Yang Song, Xiaolin Shi, Ryen White, and Ahmed Hassan
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Myeongjae Jeon, Saehoon Kim, Seung-won Hwang, Yuxiong He, Sameh Elnikety, Alan L. Cox, and Scott Rixner

Web search engines are optimized to reduce the high-percentile response time to consistently provide fast responses to almost all user queries. This is a challenging task because the query workload exhibits large variability, consisting of many short-running queries and a few long-running queries that significantly impact the high-percentile response time. With modern multicore servers, parallelizing the processing of an individual query is a promising solution to reduce query execution time, but it...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Hongning Wang, Yang Song, Ming-Wei Chang, Xiaodong He, Ahmed Hassan, and Ryen White
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM
Bhaskar Mitra, Milad Shokouhi, Filip Radlinski, and Katja Hofmann

Query Auto-Completion (QAC) is a popular feature of web search engines that aims to assist users to formulate queries faster and avoid spelling mistakes by presenting them with possible completions as soon as they start typing. However, despite the wide adoption of auto-completion in search systems, there is little published on how users interact with such services.

In this paper, we present the first large-scale study of user interactions with auto-completion based on query logs of Bing, a...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM
Omar Alonso, Catherine C. Marshall, and Marc Najork

How can we best use crowdsourcing to perform a subjective labeling task with low inter-rater agreement? We have developed a framework for debugging this type of subjective judgment task, and for improving label quality before the crowdsourcing task is run at scale. Our framework alternately varies characteristics of the work, assesses the reliability of the workers, and strives to improve task design by disaggregating the labels into components that may be less subjective to the workers, thereby...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Choose...
Number: MSR-TR-2014-91
Rakesh Agrawal, Maria Christoforaki, Sreenivas Gollapudi, Anitha Kannan, Krishnaram Kenthapadi, and Adith Swaminathan

We propose a system for mining videos from the web for supplementing the content of electronic textbooks in order to enhance their utility. Textbooks are generally organized into sections such that each section explains very few concepts and every concept is primarily explained in one section. Building upon these principles from the education literature and drawing upon the theory of Formal Concept Analysis, we define the focus of a section in terms of a few indicia, which themselves are combinations of...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Springer
Andrew Putnam, Adrian Caulfield, Eric Chung, Derek Chiou, Kypros Constantinides, John Demme, Hadi Esmaeilzadeh, Jeremy Fowers, Gopi Prashanth Gopal, Jan Gray, Michael Haselman, Scott Hauck, Stephen Heil, Amir Hormati, Joo-Young Kim, Sitaram Lanka, Jim Larus, Eric Peterson, Simon Pope, Aaron Smith, Jason Thong, Phillip Yi Xiao, and Doug Burger
Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Catherine C. Marshall and Sian Lindley

We present findings from a qualitative study of self-search, also known as ego or vanity search. In the context of a broader study about personal online content, participants were asked to search for themselves using their own computers and the browsers and queries they would normally adopt. Our analysis highlights five motivations for self-search: as a form of identity management; to discover reactions to and reuse of user-generated media; to re-find personal content; as a form of entertainment; and to...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Munmun De Choudhury, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Ryen White

Search engines and social media are two of the most commonly used online services; in this paper, we examine how users appropriate these platforms for online health activities via both large-scale log analysis and a survey of 210 people. While users often turn to search engines to learn about serious or highly stigmatic conditions, a surprising amount of sensitive health information is also sought and shared via social media, in our case the public social plat-form Twitter. We contrast what health...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Jeffrey M. Rzeszotarski and Meredith Ringel Morris

Every day users of social networking services ask their followers and friends millions of questions. These friend-sourced questions not only provide informational benefits, but also may reinforce social bonds. However, there is a limit to how much a person may want to friendsource. They may be uncomfortable asking questions that are too private, might not want to expend others’ time or effort, or may feel as though they have already accrued too many social debts. These perceived social costs limit the...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Matteo Venanzi, John Guiver, Gabriella Kazai, Pushmeet Kohli, and Milad Shokouhi
Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Hongwei Li, Bo Zhao, and Ariel Fuxman

Worker reliability is a longstanding issue in crowdsourcing, and the automatic discovery of high quality workers is an important practical problem. Most previous work on this problem mainly focuses on estimating the quality of each individual worker jointly with the true answer of each task. However, in practice, for some tasks, worker quality could be associated with some explicit characteristics of the worker, such as education level, major and age. So the following question arises: how do we...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Michael Johnson, Jorge Pérez, and James F. Terwilliger
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Choose...
Jaime Teevan, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Shiri Azenkot

Although most mobile search tools are designed for individuals, many mobile searches involve people searching with others. During these searches, people transition between individual and group search, moving closer to each other and sharing their screen while discussing search criteria and results. O-SNAP is a mobile application that explicitly supports in-person collaborative search by allowing users to physically signal their willingness to share and facilitating face-to-face search-related...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Article
Marios Kokkodis, Anitha Kannan, and Krishnaram Kenthapadi

The emergence of tablet devices, cloud computing, and abundant online multimedia content presents new opportunities to transform traditional paper-based textbooks into tablet-based electronic textbooks, and to further augment the educational experience by enriching them with relevant supplementary materials. Given a candidate set of relevant educational videos for augmenting an electronic textbook, how do we assign the videos at the appropriate granularity (a collection of logical units in the book)? We...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Yang Song, Weiwei Cui, Shixia Liu, and Kuansan Wang

We present a system to analyze user interests by analyzing their online behaviors from large-scale usage logs. We surmise that user interests can be characterized by a large collection of features we call the behavioral genes that can be deduced from both their explicit and implicit online behaviors. It is the goal of this research to sequence the entire behavioral genome for online population, namely, to identify the pertinent behavioral genes and uncover their relationships in explaining and...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Rakesh Agrawal, Behzad Golshan, and Evimaria Terzi

Given a class of large number of students, each exhibiting a different ability level, how can we form teams of students so that the expected performance of team members improves due to team participation? We take a computational perspective and formally define two versions of such team-formation problem: the MaxTeam and the MaxPartition problems. The first asks for the identification of a single team of students that improves the performance of most of the participating team members. The second asks for...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Choose...
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