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Algorithms and theory47205 (235)
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Neha Gupta, David Martin, Ben Hanrahan, and Jacki O'Neill

Previous studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), the most well-known marketplace for microtasks, show that the largest population of workers on AMT is U.S. based, while the second largest is based in India. In this paper, we present insights from an ethnographic study conducted in India to introduce some of these workers or ‘Turkers’ – who they are, how they work and what turking means to them. We examine the work they do to maintain their reputations and their work-life balance. In doing this, we...

Publication details
Date: 9 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork
Azadeh Forghani, Gina Venolia, and Kori Inkpen
Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Seungwon Kim, Sasa Junuzovic, and Kori Inkpen

Mobile videoconferencing is increasingly being used to bring remote friends or family along to an activity happening outside the home, such as shopping or visiting a tourist attraction. We explored how including contextual information of the event, in addition to audio and video of the person at the event, impacts the shared experience. We studied three kinds of information: a map showing the position of the person at the activity, a second live video showing what was in front of that person, and a...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Dan Liebling and Sören Preibusch

Multiple vendors now provide relatively inexpensive desktop eye and gaze tracking devices. ith miniatureization and decreasing manufacturing costs, gaze trackers will follow the path of webcams, becoming ubiquitous and inviting many of the same privacy concerns. However, whereas the privacy loss from webcams may be obvious to the user, gaze tracking is more opaque and deserves special attention. In this paper, we review current research in gaze tracking and pupillometry and argue that gaze data should...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Daniel J. Liebling and Susan T. Dumais

Gaze tracking technology is increasingly common in desktop, laptop and mobile scenarios. Most previous research on eye gaze patterns during human-computer interaction has been confined to controlled laboratory studies. In this paper we present an in situ study of gaze and mouse coordination as participants went about their normal activities. We analyze the coordi-nation between gaze and mouse, showing that gaze often leads the mouse, but not as much as previously reported, and in ways that depend on the...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Xuxu Chen, Yu Zheng, Yubiao Chen, Qiwei Jin, Weiwei Sun, Eric Chang, and Wei-Ying Ma

Many developing countries are suffering from air pollution, especially the Particulate Matter with diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). While quite a few air quality monitoring stations have been built by governments in a city’s public areas, the indoor PM2.5 has not yet been monitored and dealt with effectively. Though many office buildings have a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, PM2.5 is not considered as a factor when the system circulates fresh air from outdoors....

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Michael Levit, Sarangarajan Parthasarathy, Shuangyu Chang, Andreas Stolcke, and Benoit Dumoulin

We present a modification of the traditional n-gram language modeling approach that departs from the word-level data representation and seeks to re-express the training text in terms of tokens that could be either words, common phrases or instances of one or several classes. Our iterative optimization algorithm considers alternative parses of the corpus in terms of these tokens, re-estimates token n-gram probabilities and also updates within-class distributions. In this paper, we focus on the cold start...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Bahador Saket, Sijie Yang, Hong Tan, Koji Yatani, and Darren Edge

Managing time while presenting is challenging, but mobile devices offer both convenience and flexibility in their ability to support the end-to-end process of setting, refining, and following presentation time targets. From an initial HCI-Q study of 20 presenters, we identified the need to set such targets per “zone” of consecutive slides (rather than per slide or for the whole talk), as well as the need for feedback that accommodates two distinct attitudes towards presentation timing. These findings...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Suman Ravuri and Andreas Stolcke

Addressee detection for dialog systems aims to detect which utterances are directed at the system, as opposed to someone else. An important means for classification is the lexical content of the utterance, and N-gram models have been shown to be effective for this task. In this paper we investigate whether neural networks can enhance lexical addressee detection, using data from a human-human-computer dialog system. Even though we find no improvement from simply replacing the standard Ngram LM with a...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Ashley Feniello, Hao Dang, and Stan Birchfield
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Publication details
Date: 20 August 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-95
Joseph Bonneau and Stuart Schechter

Challenging the conventional wisdom that users cannot remember cryptographically-strong secrets, we test the hypothesis that users can learn randomly-assigned 56-bit codes (encoded as either 6 words or 12 characters) through spaced repetition. We asked remote research participants to perform a distractor task that required logging into a website 90 times, over up to two weeks, with a password of their choosing. After they entered their chosen password correctly we displayed a short code (4 letters or 2...

Publication details
Date: 20 August 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: USENIX
Yilun Wang, Yu Zheng, and Tong Liu

This demonstration presents a noise map of New York City, based on four ubiquitous data sources: 311 complaint data, social media, road networks, and Point of Interests (POIs). The noise situation of any location in the city, consisting of a noise pollution indicator and a noise composition, is derived through a contextaware tensor decomposition approach we proposed in [5]. Moreover, our demo highlights two components: a) ranking locations based on inferred noise indicators in various settings, e.g., on...

Publication details
Date: 1 August 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Stuart Schechter and Cristian Bravo-Lillo

We surveyed 3,539 workers on Amazon's Mechanical Turk to gauge their response to five scenarios describing scientific experiments---including one scenario based on Facebook's emotional contagion experiment. Respondents who reported being already aware of Facebook's experiment responded very differently to the scenario based on it than those who reported being unaware, so we focused on 2,102 respondents who reported being unaware. We asked these respondents whether they would want someone they cared...

Publication details
Date: 15 July 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Choose...
Number: MSR-TR-2014-97
Yoshihiro Kawahara, Steve Hodges, Nan-Wei Gong, Simon Olberding, and Jürgen Steimle
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
Steve Hodges, Bjoern Hartmann, Hans Gellersen, and Albrecht Schmidt
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
Cecily Morrison, Neil Smyth, Robert Corish, Kenton O'Hara, and Abigail Sellen

Computer visions (CV) systems are increasingly finding new roles in domains such as healthcare. These collaborative settings are a new challenge for CV systems, requiring the design of appropriate interaction paradigms. The provision of feedback, particularly of what the CV system can “see,” is a key aspect, and may not always be possible to present visually. We explore the design space for audio feedback for a scenario of interest, the clinical assessment of Multiple Sclerosis using a CV system. We...

Publication details
Date: 25 June 2014
Type: Article
Ke Zhai and Jason Williams

A key challenge for computational conversation models is to discover latent structure in task-oriented dialogue, since it provides a basis for analysing, evaluating, and building conversational systems. We propose three new unsupervised models to discover latent structures in task-oriented dialogues. Our methods synthesize hidden Markov models (for underlying state) and topic models (to connect words to states). We apply them to two real, non-trivial datasets: human-computer spoken dialogues in bus...

Publication details
Date: 23 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Association for Computational Linguistics
John Downs, Nicolas Villar, James Scott, Sian Lindley, John Helmes, and Gavin Smyth

We present Picco, a tiny situated display for drawings and simple animations, which are created on a dedicated tablet app. Picco was designed to support playful messaging in the workplace through a glanceable desktop device that would place minimal demands on users. Two studies of the device at work demonstrated how crafting was an expression of intimacy when the device was used to connect the workplace to the home, and a way of demonstrating skill and humor to a broad audience when messages were sent...

Publication details
Date: 21 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Patrick Pantel, Michael Gamon, and Ariel Fuxman

Natural touch interfaces, common now in devices such as tablets and smartphones, make it cumbersome for users to select text. There is a need for a new text selection paradigm that goes beyond the high acuity selection-by-mouse that we have relied on for decades. In this paper, we introduce such a paradigm, called Smart Selection, which aims to recover a user’s intended text selection from her touch input. We model the problem using an ensemble learning approach, which leverages multiple linguistic...

Publication details
Date: 6 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Andrew Begel, Thomas Fritz, Sebastian Mueller, Serap Yigit-Elliott, and Manuela Zueger

Software developers make programming mistakes that cause serious bugs for their customers. Existing work to detect problematic software focuses mainly on post hoc identification of correlations between bug fixes and code. We propose a new approach to address this problem — detect when software developers are experiencing difficulty while they work on their programming tasks, and stop them before they can introduce bugs into the code. In this paper, we investigate a novel approach to classify the...

Publication details
Date: 4 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: International Conference on Software Engineering
Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Jung-Joo Lee, Siân Lindley, Salu Ylirisku, Giulio Jacucci, Tim Regan, and Marcus Nurminen

We present findings from a study of Tokens of Search, a system comprising physical RFID "tokens" that point to web content, and a wooden tray fixed to a small screen, which can be used to access that content. Three families lived with the system for a month, as an exploration of how tokens might be used as resources for practical action. Our findings highlight existing web practices and their individual and collective nuances; tokens were employed in the creation of short-term collections and...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Tawfiq Ammari, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Sarita Yardi Schoenebeck

Over 10 million children are diagnosed with a special need in the United States each year. For their parents, the economic and emotional costs can be overwhelming. Using a mixed methods approach, this research explores how social media supports parents of children with special needs. We find that parents prefer Facebook pages and groups and Yahoo! groups for seeking information and social support. These online sites offer geographic communities for local needs (e.g. school services) and case-based...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI
Matthew Henderson, Blaise Thomson, and Jason D. Williams
Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
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