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Algorithms and theory47205 (254)
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Kathryn Zyskowski, Meredith Ringel Morris, Jeffrey P. Bigham, Mary L. Gray, and Shaun Kane

We present the first formal study of crowdworkers who have disabilities via in-depth open-ended interviews of 17 people (disabled crowdworkers and job coaches for people with disabilities) and a survey of 631 adults with disabilities. Our findings establish that people with a variety of disabilities currently participate in the crowd labor marketplace, despite challenges such as crowdsourcing workflow designs that inadvertently prohibit participation by, and may negatively affect the worker reputations...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Larry Heck and Hongzhao Huang

This paper presents an unsupervised neural knowledge graph embedding model and a coherence-based approach for semantic parsing of Twitter dialogs. The approach learns embeddings directly from knowledge graphs and scales to all of Wikipedia. Experiments show a 23.6% reduction in semanticparsing errors compared to the previously best reported results.

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Neha Gupta, David Martin, Ben Hanrahan, and Jacki O'Neill

Previous studies on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT), the most well-known marketplace for microtasks, show that the largest population of workers on AMT is U.S. based, while the second largest is based in India. In this paper, we present insights from an ethnographic study conducted in India to introduce some of these workers or ‘Turkers’ – who they are, how they work and what turking means to them. We examine the work they do to maintain their reputations and their work-life balance. In doing this, we...

Publication details
Date: 9 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork
Azadeh Forghani, Gina Venolia, and Kori Inkpen
Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Katja Hofmann, Bhaskar Mitra, Filip Radlinski, and Milad Shokouhi

Query Auto Completion (QAC) suggests possible queries to web search users from the moment they start entering a query. This popular feature of web search engines is thought to reduce physical and cognitive effort when formulating a query.

Perhaps surprisingly, despite QAC being widely used, users’ interactions with it are poorly understood. This paper begins to address this gap. We present the results of an in-depth user study of user interactions with QAC in web search. While study participants...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Seungwon Kim, Sasa Junuzovic, and Kori Inkpen

Mobile videoconferencing is increasingly being used to bring remote friends or family along to an activity happening outside the home, such as shopping or visiting a tourist attraction. We explored how including contextual information of the event, in addition to audio and video of the person at the event, impacts the shared experience. We studied three kinds of information: a map showing the position of the person at the activity, a second live video showing what was in front of that person, and a...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Michael Auli, Michel Galley, and Jianfeng Gao

Recent work by Cherry (2013) has shown that directly optimizing phrase-based reordering models towards BLEU can lead to significant gains. Their approach is limited to small training sets of a few thousand sentences and a similar number of sparse features. We show how the expected BLEU objective allows us to train a simple linear discriminative reordering model with millions of sparse features on hundreds of thousands of sentences resulting in significant improvements. A comparison to likelihood...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: EMNLP
Sarah Mennicken, A. J. Bernheim Brush, Asta Roseway, and James Scott

People respond emotionally to other people, animals, or even objects like furniture. While current furniture is static in appearance, embedded electronics can enable furniture to change its appearance. A couch could show excitement during a party or anger when a pet scratches it. But would emotional furniture delight or annoy people? To explore the potential for emotional furniture, we built EmotoCouch. Through colored light, visual patterns, and haptic feedback, EmotoCouch expresses six emotional...

Publication details
Date: 15 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Sarah Mennicken, A. J. Bernheim Brush, Asta Roseway, and James Scott

Furniture is the building block of the spaces we inhabit. Its design and its functions shape how we use spaces, as individuals and as groups. While being an integral part of our lives, furniture is unaware of what happens around it. But what if furniture could change its appearance? What situations should it respond to? How might it communicate its state to those around it? Can we use emotional expression for such communication? To find and explore roles for interactive furniture in domestic spaces, we...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Dan Liebling and Sören Preibusch

Multiple vendors now provide relatively inexpensive desktop eye and gaze tracking devices. ith miniatureization and decreasing manufacturing costs, gaze trackers will follow the path of webcams, becoming ubiquitous and inviting many of the same privacy concerns. However, whereas the privacy loss from webcams may be obvious to the user, gaze tracking is more opaque and deserves special attention. In this paper, we review current research in gaze tracking and pupillometry and argue that gaze data should...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Daniel J. Liebling and Susan T. Dumais

Gaze tracking technology is increasingly common in desktop, laptop and mobile scenarios. Most previous research on eye gaze patterns during human-computer interaction has been confined to controlled laboratory studies. In this paper we present an in situ study of gaze and mouse coordination as participants went about their normal activities. We analyze the coordi-nation between gaze and mouse, showing that gaze often leads the mouse, but not as much as previously reported, and in ways that depend on the...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Alex Marin, Roman Holenstein, Ruhi Sarikaya, and Mari Ostendorf

This paper explores a novel method for learning phrase pattern features for text classification, employing a mapping of selected words into a knowledge graph and self-training over unlabeled data. Using Support Vector Machine classification, we obtain improvements over lexical and fully-supervised phrase pattern features in domain and intent detection for language understanding, particularly in conjunction with the use of unlabeled data. Our best results are obtained using unlabeled data filtered for...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Ashley Feniello, Hao Dang, and Stan Birchfield
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Michael Levit, Sarangarajan Parthasarathy, Shuangyu Chang, Andreas Stolcke, and Benoit Dumoulin

We present a modification of the traditional n-gram language modeling approach that departs from the word-level data representation and seeks to re-express the training text in terms of tokens that could be either words, common phrases or instances of one or several classes. Our iterative optimization algorithm considers alternative parses of the corpus in terms of these tokens, re-estimates token n-gram probabilities and also updates within-class distributions. In this paper, we focus on the cold start...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Jean-Philippe Robichaud, Paul A. Crook, Puyang Xu, Omar Zia Khan, and Ruhi Sarikaya

We present a novel application of hypothesis ranking (HR) for the task of domain detection in a multi-domain, multiturn dialog system. Alternate, domain dependent, semantic frames from a spoken language understanding (SLU) analysis are ranked using a gradient boosted decision trees (GBDT) ranker to determine the most likely domain. The ranker, trained using Lambda Rank, makes use of a range of signals derived from the SLU and previous turn context to improve domain detection. On a multi-turn corpus we...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Xuxu Chen, Yu Zheng, Yubiao Chen, Qiwei Jin, Weiwei Sun, Eric Chang, and Wei-Ying Ma

Many developing countries are suffering from air pollution, especially the Particulate Matter with diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5). While quite a few air quality monitoring stations have been built by governments in a city’s public areas, the indoor PM2.5 has not yet been monitored and dealt with effectively. Though many office buildings have a HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning) system, PM2.5 is not considered as a factor when the system circulates fresh air from outdoors....

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Ivan J. Tashev

Industry Perspective video about the trends in NUIs with a special focus on intelligent audio interfaces that can identify speakers and adapt interactions between humans and machines.

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Number: 9
Puyang Xu and Ruhi Sarikaya

In slot filling with conditional random field (CRF), the strong current word and dictionary features tend to swamp the effect of contextual features, a phenomenon also known as feature undertraining. This is a dangerous tradeoff especially when training data is small and dictionaries are limited in its coverage of the entities observed during testing. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective solution that extends the feature dropout algorithm, directly aiming at boosting the...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
Bahador Saket, Sijie Yang, Hong Tan, Koji Yatani, and Darren Edge

Managing time while presenting is challenging, but mobile devices offer both convenience and flexibility in their ability to support the end-to-end process of setting, refining, and following presentation time targets. From an initial HCI-Q study of 20 presenters, we identified the need to set such targets per “zone” of consecutive slides (rather than per slide or for the whole talk), as well as the need for feedback that accommodates two distinct attitudes towards presentation timing. These findings...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Mar Gonzalez-Franco and Philip A. Chou

In this paper, we further the characterization of a fundamental limit of human perception: the accuracy of human estimation of others’ eye gaze directions. In particular, we introduce a non-linear model that describes how both the head direction and the gaze direction of a looker relative to an observer jointly affect the observer’s perception of the looker’s gaze direction. Ours is the first to explain in a single model the biases introduced by the looker’s head direction, the relative accuracy of eye...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Suman Ravuri and Andreas Stolcke

Addressee detection for dialog systems aims to detect which utterances are directed at the system, as opposed to someone else. An important means for classification is the lexical content of the utterance, and N-gram models have been shown to be effective for this task. In this paper we investigate whether neural networks can enhance lexical addressee detection, using data from a human-human-computer dialog system. Even though we find no improvement from simply replacing the standard Ngram LM with a...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
X. Xiong, Q. Cai, Z. Liu, and Z. Zhang

Most commercial eye gaze tracking systems are based on the use of infrared lights. However, such systems may not work outdoor or may have a very limited head box for them to work. This paper proposes a non-infrared based approach to track one's eye gaze with an RGBD camera (in our case, Kinect). The proposed method adopts a personalized 3D face model constructed off-line. To detect the eye gaze, our system tracks the iris center and a set of 2D facial landmarks whose 3D locations are provided by the...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
X. Xiong, Q. Cai, Z. Liu, and Z. Zhang

Most commercial eye gaze tracking systems are based on the use of infrared lights. However, such systems may not work outdoor or may have a very limited head box for them to work. This paper proposes a non-infrared based approach to track one's eye gaze with an RGBD camera (in our case, Kinect). The proposed method adopts a personalized 3D face model constructed off-line. To detect the eye gaze, our system tracks the iris center and a set of 2D facial landmarks whose 3D locations are provided by the...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Joseph Bonneau and Stuart Schechter

Challenging the conventional wisdom that users cannot remember cryptographically-strong secrets, we test the hypothesis that users can learn randomly-assigned 56-bit codes (encoded as either 6 words or 12 characters) through spaced repetition. We asked remote research participants to perform a distractor task that required logging into a website 90 times, over up to two weeks, with a password of their choosing. After they entered their chosen password correctly we displayed a short code (4 letters or 2...

Publication details
Date: 20 August 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: USENIX
Saranga Komanduri, Rich Shay, Lorrie Cranor, Cormac Herley, and Stuart Schechter
Publication details
Date: 20 August 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: USENIX
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