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Algorithms and theory47205 (342)
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Dongwook Yoon, Nicholas Chen, François Guimbretière, and Abigail Sellen

This paper introduces a novel document annotation system that aims to enable the kinds of rich communication that usually only occur in face-to-face meetings. Our system, RichReview, lets users create annotations on top of digital documents using three main modalities: freeform inking, voice for narration, and deictic gestures in support of voice. RichReview uses novel visual representations and timesynchronization between modalities to simplify annotation access and navigation. Moreover, RichReview’s...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Bhaskar Mitra and Nick Craswell

Query auto-completion (QAC) systems typically suggest queries that have previously been observed in search logs. Given a partial user query, the system looks up this query prefix against a precomputed set of candidates, then orders them using ranking signals such as popularity. Such systems can only recommend queries for prefixes that have been previously seen by the search engine with adequate frequency. They fail to recommend if the prefix is sufficiently rare such that it has no matches in the...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Dilek Hakkani-Tur, Yun-Cheng Ju, Geoffrey Zweig, and Gokhan Tur

Spoken language understanding (SLU) in today’s conversational systems focuses on recognizing a set of domains, intents, and associated arguments, that are determined by application developers. User requests that are not covered by these are usually directed to search engines, and may remain unhandled. We propose a method that aims to find common user intents amongst these uncovered, out-of-domain utterances, with the goal of supporting future phases of dialog system design. Our approach relies on...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Interspeech 2015 Conference
Ahmed Kharrufa, James Nicholson, Paul Dunphy, Steve Hodges, Pam Briggs, and Patrick Olivier

In addition to their popularity as personal devices, tablets, are becoming increasingly prevalent in work and public settings. In many of these newly-established application domains a supervisor user – such as the teacher in a classroom – oversees the function of one or more devices. Access to supervisory functions is typically controlled through the use of a passcode, but experience shows that keeping this passcode secret can be problematic. In this paper we introduce SwipeID, a method of identifying...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IFIP
Suman Ravuri and Andreas Stolcke

Utterance classification is a critical pre-processing step for many speech understanding and dialog systems. In multi-user settings, one needs to first identify if an utterance is even directed at the system, followed by another level of classification to determine the intent of the user’s input. In this work, we propose RNN and LSTM models for both these tasks. We show how both models outperform baselines based on ngram-based language models (LMs), feedforward neural network LMs, and boosting...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ISCA - International Speech Communication Association
A.J. Bernheim Brush, John Krumm, Sidhant Gupta, and Shwetak Patel

Time of use tiered pricing schedules encourage shifting electricity demand from peak to off-peak hours. Charging times for electric vehicles (EV) can be shifted into overnight hours, which are usually off-peak. EVs can also be used as energy storage devices, available during certain peak hours to power a house with electricity stored during off-peak hours. Studies suggest both techniques are practical, but were based on simulated demand patterns or large commercial fleets. To investigate feasibility on...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
A.J. Bernheim Brush, John Krumm, Sidhant Gupta, and Shwetak Patel

Time of use tiered pricing schedules encourage shifting electricity demand from peak to off-peak hours. Charging times for electric vehicles (EV) can be shifted into overnight hours, which are usually off-peak. EVs can also be used as energy storage devices, available during certain peak hours to power a house with electricity stored during off-peak hours. Studies suggest both techniques are practical, but were based on simulated demand patterns or large commercial fleets. To investigate feasibility on...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Barrett Ens, Eyal Ofek, Neil Bruce, and Pourang Irani

We introduce a layout manager that exploits the robust sensing capabilities of next-generation head-worn displays by embedding virtual application windows in the user’s surroundings. With the aim of allowing users to find applications quickly, our approach leverages spatial memory of a known body-centric configuration. The layout manager balances multiple constraints to keep layouts consistent across environments while observing geometric and visual features specific to each locale. We compare various...

Publication details
Date: 9 August 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Steven M. Drucker and Roland Fernandez

We use the term Unit Visualizations to describe a class of visualizations that explicitly represent every row in a data set. They have been around in one form or another for hundreds of years, usually in static form (e.g. tallies, scatterplots, Dot Plots, Unit Charts, Pixel Charts, or Isotypes.) We characterize their design space and propose a unifying framework that can produce common types of Unit Visualizations. In addition, we introduce SandDance, a tool built to explore the effectiveness of...

Publication details
Date: 6 August 2015
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2015-65
Wangjiang Zhu, Baoyuan Wang, and Steve Lin
Publication details
Date: 1 August 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: 12th IEEE International Conference On Advanced Video and Signal-based Survillance
Elena Agapie, Jaime Teevan, and Andrés Monroy-Hernández

While crowd work typically involves tasks that performed at any time and anywhere, some tasks inherently require the physical presence of workers at a specific time and location. This paper presents a case study of a hybrid crowdsourcing process that involves the collaborative production of event reports using a combination of local and remote workers. The process extends human computation into the physical world by using local workers to collect information in person at events and remote workers to...

Publication details
Date: 1 August 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: AAAI - Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
Gerard Pons-Moll, Jonathan Taylor, Jamie Shotton, Aaron Hertzmann, and Andrew Fitzgibbon

We present a new method for inferring dense data to model correspondences, focusing on the application of human pose estimation from depth images. Recent work proposed the use of regression forests to quickly predict correspondences between depth pixels and points on a 3D human mesh model. That work, however, used a proxy forest training objective based on the classification of depth pixels to body parts. In contrast, we introduce Metric Space Information Gain (MSIG), a new decision forest training...

Publication details
Date: 1 August 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Springer
Stuart Schechter and Joseph Bonneau

Nearly all smartphones and tablets support unlocking with a short user-chosen secret: e.g., a numeric PIN or a pattern. To address users’ tendency to choose guessable PINs and patterns, we compare two approaches for helping users learn assigned random secrets. In one approach, built on our prior work [16], we assign users a second numeric PIN and, during each login, we require them to enter it after their chosen PIN. In a new approach, we re-arrange the digits on the keypad so that the user’s...

Publication details
Date: 22 July 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: USENIX – Advanced Computing Systems Association
T. J. Tsai, Andreas Stolcke, and Malcolm Slaney

The goal of addressee detection is to answer the question, “Are you talking to me?” When a dialogue system interacts with multiple users, it is crucial to detect when a user is speaking to the system as opposed to another person. We study this problem in a multimodal scenario, using lexical, acoustic, visual, dialogue state, and beamforming information. Using data from a multiparty dialogu system, we quantify the benefits of using multiple modalities over using a single modality. We also assess the...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Siân Lindley and Jayne Wallace

Moving home in later life is an experience born of necessity for many older people. Yet while a good deal of research has considered how to support ‘ageing in place’, relatively little attention has been given to the transition of moving to a new home, or how a feeling of belonging is accomplished once there. We present findings from two studies that explore ‘placing in age’. The first looks at downsizing one’s home; the second at living in a residential care home. We reflect on what placing in age...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Number: 4
Hanif Baharin, Stephen Viller, and Sean Rintel

SonicAIR is an ambient awareness technology probe designed to explore how connecting the soundscapes of friends or family members might reduce the isolation of seniors living independently. At its core, SonicAIR instruments kitchen activity sites to produce an always-on real-time aural representation of remote domestic rhythms. This paper reports how users in two pilot SonicAIR deployments used the sounds as resources for recognizing comfortable narratives of sociability. Used alongside telecare...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Zhaoyuan Ma, Darren Edge, Leah Findlater, and Hong Tan

The present study used a flat keyboard without moving keys and enabled with haptic keyclick feedback to examine the effect of haptic keyclick feedback on touch typing performance. We investigated, with well-controlled stimuli and a within-participant design, how haptic keyclick feedback might improve typing performance in terms of typing speed, typing efficiency and typing errors. Of the three kinds of haptic feedback we tested, all increased typing speed and decreased typing errors compared to a...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Sameh Khamis, Jonathan Taylor, Jamie Shotton, Cem Keskin, Shahram Izadi, and Andrew Fitzgibbon

We describe how to learn a compact and efficient model of the surface deformation of human hands. The model is built from a set of noisy depth images of a diverse set of subjects performing different poses with their hands. We represent the observed surface using Loop subdivision of a control mesh that is deformed by our learned parametric shape and pose model. The model simultaneously accounts for variation in subject-specific shape and subject-agnostic pose. Specifically, hand shape is...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Sarah K. Tyler, Jaime Teevan, Peter Bailey, Sebastian de la Chica, and Nikhil Dandekar

Information on almost any given topic can be found on the Web, often accessible via many different websites. But even when the topical content is similar across websites, the websites can have different characteristics that appeal to different people. As a result, individuals can develop preferred websites to visit for certain topics. While it has long been speculated that such preferences exist, little is understood about how prevalent, clear, and stable these preferences actually are. We characterize...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2015-48
Kuansan Wang

Human is the only species on earth that has mastered the technologies in writing and printing to capture ephemeral thoughts and scientific discoveries. The capabilities to pass along knowledge, not only geographically but also generationally, have formed the bedrock of our civilizations. We are in the midst of a silent revolution driven by the technological advancements: no longer are computers just a fixture of our physical world but have they been so deeply woven into our daily routines that they are...

Publication details
Date: 18 May 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
John Vilk, David Molnar, Benjamin Livshits, Eyal Ofek, Chris Rossbach, Alexander Moshchuk, Helen J. Wang, and Ran Gal

Immersive experiences that mix digital and real-world objects are becoming reality, but they raise serious privacy concerns as they require real-time sensor input. These experiences are already present on smartphones and game consoles via Kinect, and will eventually emerge on the web platform. However, browsers do not expose the display interfaces needed to render immersive experiences. Previous security research focuses on controlling application access to sensor input alone, and do not deal...

Publication details
Date: 18 May 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Jarrod Knibbe, Hrvoje Benko, and Andrew D. Wilson

Projector-camera (pro-cam) systems afford a wide range of interactive possibilities, combining both natural and mixed-reality 3D interaction. However, the latency inherent within these systems can cause the projection to ‘slip’ from its intended target, detracting from the overall experience. Because of this, pro-cam systems have typically shied away from truly dynamic scenarios. In turn, research has been exploring latency reduction techniques across a range of domains, but these techniques typically...

Publication details
Date: 11 May 2015
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2015-35
Helen J. Wang, Alexander Moshchuk, Michael Gamon, Mona Haraty, Shamsi Iqbal, Eli T. Brown, Ashish Kapoor, Chris Meek, Eric Chen, Yuan Tian, Jaime Teevan, Mary Czerwinski, and Susan Dumais

In this paper, we advocate “activity” to be a central abstraction between people and computing instead of applications. We outline the vision of the activity platform as the next-generation social platform.

Publication details
Date: 8 May 2015
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2015-38
Madeline E. Smith and John C. Tang

While group messaging has become popular, particularly among adolescents, it has not yet been explored in the HCI literature. We interviewed 48 adolescents, aged 15-24, who use group messaging regularly. We present a framework for understanding the types of groups they communicate with according to three dimensions: focus, membership, and duration. We also present findings about factors influencing their choice of group messaging tools and the problems they have managing multiple group threads using...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-43
Cecily Morrison, Marcus D'Souza, Kit Huckvale, Jonas F Dorn, Jessica Burggraaff, Christian Philipp Kamm, Saskia Marie Steinheimer, Peter Kontschieder, Antonio Criminisi, Bernard Uitdehaag, Frank Dahlke, Ludwig Kappos, and Abigail Sellen

Background: Sensor-based recordings of human movements are becoming increasingly important for the assessment of motor symptoms in neurological disorders beyond rehabilitative purposes. ASSESS MS is a movement recording and analysis system being developed to automate the classification of motor dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis using depth-sensing computer vision. It aims to provide a more consistent and finer-grained measurement of motor dysfunction than currently possible....

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2015
Type: Article
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