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Kathryn Zyskowski, Meredith Ringel Morris, Jeffrey P. Bigham, Mary L. Gray, and Shaun Kane

We present the first formal study of crowdworkers who have disabilities via in-depth open-ended interviews of 17 people (disabled crowdworkers and job coaches for people with disabilities) and a survey of 631 adults with disabilities. Our findings establish that people with a variety of disabilities currently participate in the crowd labor marketplace, despite challenges such as crowdsourcing workflow designs that inadvertently prohibit participation by, and may negatively affect the worker reputations...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Michael J. Paul, Ryen W. White, and Eric Horvitz

We seek to understand the evolving needs of people who are faced with a life-changing medical diagnosis based on analyses of queries extracted from an anonymized search query log. Focusing on breast cancer, we manually tag a set of Web searchers as showing disruptive shifts in focus of attention and long-term patterns of search behavior consistent with the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We build and apply probabilistic classifiers to detect these searchers from multiple sessions and to detect...

Publication details
Date: 15 November 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-144
Mohammed Shoaib, Jie Liu, and Matthai Phillipose

High functional complexity is leading us towards new architectures for sensing systems. Multi-tiered design is one among the many emerging alternatives. Such architectures bring new opportunities for effective system-level power management. For instance, varying one/more tier-level parameters can provide substantial end-to-end energy scaling. In this paper, we review an existing approach that shows how one such parameter, namely data compression, can help us scale energy at the cost of algorithmic...

Publication details
Date: 14 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Christoph Lippert, Jing Xiang, Danilo Horta, Christian Widmer, Carl Kadie, David Heckerman, and Jennifer Listgarten
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Nicolo Fusi, Christoph Lippert, Neil D Lawrence, and Oliver Stegle
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Jennifer Musto and danah boyd

Within some public policy and scholarly accounts, human trafficking is increasingly understood as a technological problem that invites collaborative anti-trafficking solutions. A growing cohort of state, non-governmental, and corporate actors in the United States have come together around the shared contention that technology functions as both a facilitator and disrupting force of trafficking, specifically sex trafficking. Despite increased attention to the trafficking-technology nexus, scant research...

Publication details
Date: 26 August 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Nina Mishra, Ryen White, Samuel Ieong, and Eric Horvitz

We study time-critical search, where users have urgent information needs in the context of an acute problem. As examples, users may need to know how to stem a severe bleed, help a baby who is choking on a foreign object, or respond to an epileptic seizure. While time-critical situations and actions have been studied in the realm of decision-support systems, little has been done with time-critical search and retrieval, and little direct support is offered by search systems. Critical challenges with...

Publication details
Date: 10 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Isabelle Stanton, Samuel Ieong, and Nina Mishra

Circumlocution is when many words are used to describe what could be said with fewer, e.g., “a machine that takes moisture out of the air” instead of “dehumidifier”. Web search is a perfect backdrop for circumlocution where people struggle to name what they seek. In some domains, not knowing the correct term can have a significant impact on the search results that are retrieved. We study the medical domain, where professional medical terms are not commonly known and where the consequence of not...

Publication details
Date: 8 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Nicola Paoletti, Boyan Yordanov, Youssef Hamadi, Christoph M. Wintersteiger, and Hillel Kugler

Deciphering the developmental program of an embryo is a fundamental question in biology. Landmark papers [9,10] have recently shown how computational models of gene regulatory networks provide system-level causal understanding of the developmental processes of the sea urchin, and enable powerful predictive capabilities. A crucial aspect of the work is empirically deriving plausible models that explain all the known experimental data, a task that becomes infeasible in practice due to the inherent...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Springer
Cecily Morrison, Neil Smyth, Robert Corish, Kenton O'Hara, and Abigail Sellen

Computer visions (CV) systems are increasingly finding new roles in domains such as healthcare. These collaborative settings are a new challenge for CV systems, requiring the design of appropriate interaction paradigms. The provision of feedback, particularly of what the CV system can “see,” is a key aspect, and may not always be possible to present visually. We explore the design space for audio feedback for a scenario of interest, the clinical assessment of Multiple Sclerosis using a CV system. We...

Publication details
Date: 25 June 2014
Type: Article
Andrew Begel, Thomas Fritz, Sebastian Mueller, Serap Yigit-Elliott, and Manuela Zueger

Software developers make programming mistakes that cause serious bugs for their customers. Existing work to detect problematic software focuses mainly on post hoc identification of correlations between bug fixes and code. We propose a new approach to address this problem — detect when software developers are experiencing difficulty while they work on their programming tasks, and stop them before they can introduce bugs into the code. In this paper, we investigate a novel approach to classify the...

Publication details
Date: 4 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: International Conference on Software Engineering
Tawfiq Ammari, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Sarita Yardi Schoenebeck

Over 10 million children are diagnosed with a special need in the United States each year. For their parents, the economic and emotional costs can be overwhelming. Using a mixed methods approach, this research explores how social media supports parents of children with special needs. We find that parents prefer Facebook pages and groups and Yahoo! groups for seeking information and social support. These online sites offer geographic communities for local needs (e.g. school services) and case-based...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI
Pablo Paredes, Ran Gilad-Bachrach, Asta Roseway, Mary Czerwinski, and Kael Rowan

Stress is considered to be a modern day “global epidemic"; so given the widespread nature of this problem, it would be beneficial if solutions that help people to learn how to cope better with stress were scalable beyond what individual or group therapies can provide today. Therefore, in this work, we study the potential of smart-phones as a pervasive medium to provide "crowd therapy". The work melds two novel contributions: first, a micro-intervention authoring process that focuses on repurposing...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE Pervasive Health
Christoph Lippert, Francesco Paolo Casale, Barbara Rakitsch, and Oliver Stegle
Publication details
Date: 1 May 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Labs Journals
Mitali Thakor and danah boyd

In this essay, we offer field notes from our ongoing ethnographic research on sex trafficking in the United States. Recent efforts to regulate websites such as Craigslist and Backpage have illuminated activist concerns regarding the role of networked technologies in the trafficking of persons and images for the purposes of sexual exploitation. We frame our understanding of trafficking and technology through a network studies approach, by describing anti-trafficking as a counter-network to the sex...

Publication details
Date: 24 April 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Springer
Ariel Schwartz, Mohini Bhavsar, Edward Cutrell, Jonathan Donner, and Melissa Densmore

Mobile devices are increasingly powerful and flexible tools for grassroots work. This document offers guidelines for thinking about your deployment, drawing attention to the latent project features that can influence the use of a device you issue for community level or frontline social service work.

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2014-45
Munmun De Choudhury, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Ryen White

Search engines and social media are two of the most commonly used online services; in this paper, we examine how users appropriate these platforms for online health activities via both large-scale log analysis and a survey of 210 people. While users often turn to search engines to learn about serious or highly stigmatic conditions, a surprising amount of sensitive health information is also sought and shared via social media, in our case the public social plat-form Twitter. We contrast what health...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Alice Marwick and danah boyd

Contemporary youth conflict often plays out through social media like Facebook and Twitter. ‘Drama’ is an emergent concept describing performative, interpersonal conflict that takes place in front of an active, engaged audience, often on social media. Using ethnographic data, this paper examines how American teenagers conceptualize the term drama; the relationship between drama and social media; and the implications drama has for understanding contemporary teenage conflict. The emic use of drama...

Publication details
Date: 17 February 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Florian 'Floyd' Mueller, Martin Gibbs, Frank Vetere, Stefan Agamanolis, and Darren Edge

Supporting physical exertion is a growing trend in digital technology design. However, most experiences focus on bodily actions in which participants act independently of each other. In contrast, we focus on virtual body-to-body interactions between multiple participants, inspired by combat-oriented sports such as boxing that highlight the need to act while avoiding reciprocal bodily action. Mediating such body-to-body interactions with technology is challenging, particularly when participants are not...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Emma Woodberry, Georgina Browne, Steve Hodges, Peter Watson, Narinder Kapur, and Ken Woodberry

Despite the severe impairment of recent episodic memories in Alzheimer’s disease, there have been few attempts to rehabilitate these deficits. In a follow-up study to previously published papers, we used a novel external memory aid to promote recall of episodic memories in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). SenseCam, a small wearable camera, was worn to record significant events in the lives of six AD patients. Every two days for two weeks, each patient’s memory for the an event was assessed,...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Michael Massimi, Jackie L. Bender, Holly O. Witteman, and Osman H. Ahmed

Online health communities are places where people can come together in order to exchange social support at a particular point in an individual's life. There are, however, relatively few accounts that look across multiple communities across the lifespan. In this paper, we reflect on four case studies of research on different online health communities in order to identify patterns in how individuals selectively adopt, use, and disengage from these communities throughout their lives. We argue that users...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Florian 'Floyd' Mueller, Martin R. Gibbs, Frank Vetere, and Darren Edge

Advances in sensing technologies have led to research into exertion games that support physically effortful experiences. Despite the existence of theoretical frameworks that can be used to analyze such exertion experiences, there are few tools to support the hands-on practice of exertion game design. To address this, we present a set of design cards based on the “Exertion Framework”, grounded in our experience of creating exertion games for over a decade. We present results demonstrating the value and...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Anthony Gitter, Alfredo Braunstein, Andrea Pagnani, Carlo Baldassi, Christian Borgs, Jennifer Chayes, Riccardo Zecchina, and Ernest Fraenkel

Advances in experimental techniques resulted in abundant genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data that have the potential to reveal critical drivers of human diseases. Complementary algorithmic developments enable researchers to map these data onto protein-protein interaction networks and infer which signaling pathways are perturbed by a disease. Despite this progress, integrating data across different biological samples or patients remains a substantial challenge because samples from...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing
Niranjan Pai, Pradnya Supe, Shailesh Kore, Y.S. Nandanwar, Aparna Hegde, Edward Cutrell, and William Thies

For years, researchers have explored the use of mobile phone reminders to improve adherence to medication. However, few studies have measured the direct medical benefit of those reminders, especially for low-literate populations in the developing world. This paper describes the use of automated voice calls to promote adherence to iron supplements among pregnant women in urban India. Unlike prior studies, we assess impact via a direct measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the blood. We enrolled 130...

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Aiden Doherty, Wilby Williamson, Melvyn Hillsdon, Steve Hodges, Charlie Foster, and Paul Kelly

BACKGROUND: The growing global burden of noncommunicable diseases makes it important to monitor and influence a range of health-related behaviours such as diet and physical activity Wearable cameras appear to record and reveal many of these behaviours in more accessible ways. However, having determined opportunities for improvement, most health-related interventions fail to result in lasting changes.

AIM: To assess the use of wearable cameras as part of a behaviour change strategy and consider...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
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