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Algorithms and theory47205 (238)
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Nina Mishra, Ryen White, Samuel Ieong, and Eric Horvitz

We study time-critical search, where users have urgent information needs in the context of an acute problem. As examples, users may need to know how to stem a severe bleed, help a baby who is choking on a foreign object, or respond to an epileptic seizure. While time-critical situations and actions have been studied in the realm of decision-support systems, little has been done with time-critical search and retrieval, and little direct support is offered by search systems. Critical challenges with...

Publication details
Date: 10 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Isabelle Stanton, Samuel Ieong, and Nina Mishra

Circumlocution is when many words are used to describe what could be said with fewer, e.g., “a machine that takes moisture out of the air” instead of “dehumidifier”. Web search is a perfect backdrop for circumlocution where people struggle to name what they seek. In some domains, not knowing the correct term can have a significant impact on the search results that are retrieved. We study the medical domain, where professional medical terms are not commonly known and where the consequence of not...

Publication details
Date: 8 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Nicola Paoletti, Boyan Yordanov, Youssef Hamadi, Christoph M. Wintersteiger, and Hillel Kugler

Deciphering the developmental program of an embryo is a fundamental question in biology. Landmark papers [9,10] have recently shown how computational models of gene regulatory networks provide system-level causal understanding of the developmental processes of the sea urchin, and enable powerful predictive capabilities. A crucial aspect of the work is empirically deriving plausible models that explain all the known experimental data, a task that becomes infeasible in practice due to the inherent...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Springer
Cecily Morrison, Neil Smyth, Robert Corish, Kenton O'Hara, and Abigail Sellen

Computer visions (CV) systems are increasingly finding new roles in domains such as healthcare. These collaborative settings are a new challenge for CV systems, requiring the design of appropriate interaction paradigms. The provision of feedback, particularly of what the CV system can “see,” is a key aspect, and may not always be possible to present visually. We explore the design space for audio feedback for a scenario of interest, the clinical assessment of Multiple Sclerosis using a CV system. We...

Publication details
Date: 25 June 2014
Type: Article
Andrew Begel, Thomas Fritz, Sebastian Mueller, Serap Yigit-Elliott, and Manuela Zueger

Software developers make programming mistakes that cause serious bugs for their customers. Existing work to detect problematic software focuses mainly on post hoc identification of correlations between bug fixes and code. We propose a new approach to address this problem — detect when software developers are experiencing difficulty while they work on their programming tasks, and stop them before they can introduce bugs into the code. In this paper, we investigate a novel approach to classify the...

Publication details
Date: 4 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: International Conference on Software Engineering
Tawfiq Ammari, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Sarita Yardi Schoenebeck

Over 10 million children are diagnosed with a special need in the United States each year. For their parents, the economic and emotional costs can be overwhelming. Using a mixed methods approach, this research explores how social media supports parents of children with special needs. We find that parents prefer Facebook pages and groups and Yahoo! groups for seeking information and social support. These online sites offer geographic communities for local needs (e.g. school services) and case-based...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI
Pablo Paredes, Ran Gilad-Bachrach, Asta Roseway, Mary Czerwinski, and Kael Rowan

Stress is considered to be a modern day “global epidemic"; so given the widespread nature of this problem, it would be beneficial if solutions that help people to learn how to cope better with stress were scalable beyond what individual or group therapies can provide today. Therefore, in this work, we study the potential of smart-phones as a pervasive medium to provide "crowd therapy". The work melds two novel contributions: first, a micro-intervention authoring process that focuses on repurposing...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE Pervasive Health
Ariel Schwartz, Mohini Bhavsar, Edward Cutrell, Jonathan Donner, and Melissa Densmore

Mobile devices are increasingly powerful and flexible tools for grassroots work. This document offers guidelines for thinking about your deployment, drawing attention to the latent project features that can influence the use of a device you issue for community level or frontline social service work.

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2014-45
Munmun De Choudhury, Meredith Ringel Morris, and Ryen White

Search engines and social media are two of the most commonly used online services; in this paper, we examine how users appropriate these platforms for online health activities via both large-scale log analysis and a survey of 210 people. While users often turn to search engines to learn about serious or highly stigmatic conditions, a surprising amount of sensitive health information is also sought and shared via social media, in our case the public social plat-form Twitter. We contrast what health...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Florian 'Floyd' Mueller, Martin Gibbs, Frank Vetere, Stefan Agamanolis, and Darren Edge

Supporting physical exertion is a growing trend in digital technology design. However, most experiences focus on bodily actions in which participants act independently of each other. In contrast, we focus on virtual body-to-body interactions between multiple participants, inspired by combat-oriented sports such as boxing that highlight the need to act while avoiding reciprocal bodily action. Mediating such body-to-body interactions with technology is challenging, particularly when participants are not...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Emma Woodberry, Georgina Browne, Steve Hodges, Peter Watson, Narinder Kapur, and Ken Woodberry

Despite the severe impairment of recent episodic memories in Alzheimer’s disease, there have been few attempts to rehabilitate these deficits. In a follow-up study to previously published papers, we used a novel external memory aid to promote recall of episodic memories in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). SenseCam, a small wearable camera, was worn to record significant events in the lives of six AD patients. Every two days for two weeks, each patient’s memory for the an event was assessed,...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Michael Massimi, Jackie L. Bender, Holly O. Witteman, and Osman H. Ahmed

Online health communities are places where people can come together in order to exchange social support at a particular point in an individual's life. There are, however, relatively few accounts that look across multiple communities across the lifespan. In this paper, we reflect on four case studies of research on different online health communities in order to identify patterns in how individuals selectively adopt, use, and disengage from these communities throughout their lives. We argue that users...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Florian 'Floyd' Mueller, Martin R. Gibbs, Frank Vetere, and Darren Edge

Advances in sensing technologies have led to research into exertion games that support physically effortful experiences. Despite the existence of theoretical frameworks that can be used to analyze such exertion experiences, there are few tools to support the hands-on practice of exertion game design. To address this, we present a set of design cards based on the “Exertion Framework”, grounded in our experience of creating exertion games for over a decade. We present results demonstrating the value and...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Anthony Gitter, Alfredo Braunstein, Andrea Pagnani, Carlo Baldassi, Christian Borgs, Jennifer Chayes, Riccardo Zecchina, and Ernest Fraenkel

Advances in experimental techniques resulted in abundant genomic, transcriptomic, epigenomic, and proteomic data that have the potential to reveal critical drivers of human diseases. Complementary algorithmic developments enable researchers to map these data onto protein-protein interaction networks and infer which signaling pathways are perturbed by a disease. Despite this progress, integrating data across different biological samples or patients remains a substantial challenge because samples from...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing
Niranjan Pai, Pradnya Supe, Shailesh Kore, Y.S. Nandanwar, Aparna Hegde, Edward Cutrell, and William Thies

For years, researchers have explored the use of mobile phone reminders to improve adherence to medication. However, few studies have measured the direct medical benefit of those reminders, especially for low-literate populations in the developing world. This paper describes the use of automated voice calls to promote adherence to iron supplements among pregnant women in urban India. Unlike prior studies, we assess impact via a direct measurement of hemoglobin (Hb) levels in the blood. We enrolled 130...

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Aiden Doherty, Wilby Williamson, Melvyn Hillsdon, Steve Hodges, Charlie Foster, and Paul Kelly

BACKGROUND: The growing global burden of noncommunicable diseases makes it important to monitor and influence a range of health-related behaviours such as diet and physical activity Wearable cameras appear to record and reveal many of these behaviours in more accessible ways. However, having determined opportunities for improvement, most health-related interventions fail to result in lasting changes.

AIM: To assess the use of wearable cameras as part of a behaviour change strategy and consider...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Yan Xu, Yining Wang, Jian-Tao Sun, Jianwen Zhang, Junichi Tsujii, and Eric Chang

To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large...

Publication details
Date: 9 July 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: PLoS
Munmun De Choudhury, Scott Counts, Eric Horvitz, and Michael Gamon

Major depression constitutes a serious challenge in personal and public health. Tens of millions of people each year suf-fer from depression and only a fraction receives adequate treatment. We explore the potential to use social media to detect and diagnose major depressive disorder in individu-als. We first employ crowdsourcing to compile a set of Twitter users who report being diagnosed with clinical de-pression, based on a standard psychometric instrument. Through their social media postings over a...

Publication details
Date: 1 July 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: AAAI
Richard Muscat, Karin Strauss, Luis Ceze, and Georg Seelig

Performing computation inside living cells offers life-changing applications, from improved medical diagnostics to better cancer therapy to intelligent drugs. Due to its bio-compatibility and ease of engineering, one promising approach for performing in-vivo computation is DNA strand displacement. This paper introduces computer architects to DNA strand displacement “circuits”, discusses associated architectural challenges, and proposes a new organization that provides practical composability. In...

Publication details
Date: 25 June 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Silvia Chiappa, John Winn, Ana Viñuela, Hannah Tipney, and Timothy D. Spector
Publication details
Date: 30 May 2013
Type: Article
Ignacio Blanquer Blanquer, Goetz Brasche, Jacek Cala, Dennis Gannon, Hugo Hiden, Hakan Soncu, Kenji Takeda, Andrés Tomás, and Simon Woodman

The availability of workflow management systems and public cloud computing infrastructures have become a major breakthrough in the usage of computing resources for scientists. However, the combination of both approaches has shortcomings, such as the need to reduce administration effort to user, or the need for simple programming models for the transition from previous more conventional computing approaches and the support of legacy software. With this in mind, Microsoft Research has started several...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: EMBNet
Munmun de Choudhury, Michael Gamon, Aaron Hoff, and Asta Roseway

We propose an early prototype: a web-based tool “Moon Phrases” that leverages an individual’s social activity online for promoting emotional reflection and wellness. Specifically, Moon Phrases tracks the emotion and linguistic expression of individuals as manifested on the social media Twitter, and presents a novel visualization—an analogy to the phases of the moon, to reveal their longitudinal trends. Social media platforms, including Twitter and Facebook provide a window onto the thoughts and feelings...

Publication details
Date: 1 May 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: European Alliance for Innovation
Ted McCarthy, Joyojeet Pal, and Edward Cutrell

We present results from a mixed methods study of screen reader use and switching behavior among people with vision impairments in India. We examine loyalty and experimentation with screen readers and find that the main drivers of adoption for early users differ significantly from the factors that drive continued use by advanced users. We discuss the factor that emerges as one of the strongest stated drivers of early adoption, TTS “voice” quality, particularly a “humansounding voice” as one of the key...

Publication details
Date: 27 February 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Aisling Ann O’Kane, Helena M. Mentis, and Eno Thereska

The purpose of the study is to explore how chronically ill patients and their specialized care network have viewed their personal medical information privacy and how it has impacted their perspectives of sharing their records with their network of healthcare providers and secondary use organizations. Diabetes patients and specialized diabetes medical care providers in Eastern England were interviewed about their sharing of medical information and their privacy concerns to inform a descriptive...

Publication details
Date: 23 February 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work
Yan Xu, Yining Wang, Tianren Liu, Junichi Tsujii, and Eric I-Chao Chang

Objective:
To create an end-to-end system to identify temporal relation in discharge summaries for the 2012 i2b2 challenge. The challenge includes event extraction, timex extraction and temporal relation identification.

Design:
An end-to-end temporal relation system was developed. It includes three subsystems: event extraction system (CRF name entity extraction and their corresponding attribute classifiers), temporal extraction system (CRF name entity extraction, their corresponding...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: BMJ Group
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