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Algorithms and theory47205 (247)
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Mohammed Shoaib, Jie Liu, and Matthai Phillipose

High functional complexity is leading us towards new architectures for sensing systems. Multi-tiered design is one among the many emerging alternatives. Such architectures bring new opportunities for effective system-level power management. For instance, varying one/more tier-level parameters can provide substantial end-to-end energy scaling. In this paper, we review an existing approach that shows how one such parameter, namely data compression, can help us scale energy at the cost of algorithmic...

Publication details
Date: 14 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Chloe Brown, Christos Efstratiou, Ilias Leontiadis, Daniele Quercia, Cecilia Mascolo, James Scott, and Peter Key

The layouts of the buildings we live in shape our everyday lives. In office environments, building spaces affect employees’ communication, which is crucial for productivity and innovation. However, accurate measurement of how spatial layouts affect interactions is a major challenge and traditional techniques may not give an objective view.

We measure the impact of building spaces on social interactions using wearable sensing devices. We study a single organization that moved between two...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Steve Hodges, Bjoern Hartmann, Hans Gellersen, and Albrecht Schmidt
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
Yoshihiro Kawahara, Steve Hodges, Nan-Wei Gong, Simon Olberding, and Jürgen Steimle
Publication details
Date: 1 July 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
John Downs, Nicolas Villar, James Scott, Sian Lindley, John Helmes, and Gavin Smyth

We present Picco, a tiny situated display for drawings and simple animations, which are created on a dedicated tablet app. Picco was designed to support playful messaging in the workplace through a glanceable desktop device that would place minimal demands on users. Two studies of the device at work demonstrated how crafting was an expression of intimacy when the device was used to connect the workplace to the home, and a way of demonstrating skill and humor to a broad audience when messages were sent...

Publication details
Date: 21 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Janarbek Matai, Joo-Young Kim, and Ryan Kastner

As data centers are increasingly focused on energy efficiency, it becomes important to develop low power implementations of the various applications that run on them. Data compression plays a critical role in data centers to mitigate storage and communication costs. This work focuses on building a low power, high performance implementation for canonical Huffman encoding. We develop a number of different hardware and software implementations targeting Xilinx Zynq FPGA, ARM Cortex-A9, and Intel Core i7....

Publication details
Date: 18 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Choose...
Andrew Begel, Thomas Fritz, Sebastian Mueller, Serap Yigit-Elliott, and Manuela Zueger

Software developers make programming mistakes that cause serious bugs for their customers. Existing work to detect problematic software focuses mainly on post hoc identification of correlations between bug fixes and code. We propose a new approach to address this problem — detect when software developers are experiencing difficulty while they work on their programming tasks, and stop them before they can introduce bugs into the code. In this paper, we investigate a novel approach to classify the...

Publication details
Date: 4 June 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: International Conference on Software Engineering
Joo-Young Kim, Scott Hauck, and Doug Burger

Data compression is crucial in large-scale storage servers to save both storage and network bandwidth, but it suffers from high computational cost. In this work, we present a high throughput FPGA based compressor as a PCIe accelerator to achieve CPU resource saving and high power efficiency. The proposed compressor is differentiated from previous hardware compressors by the following features:

  1. Targeting Xpress9 algorithm, whose compression quality is comparable to the best Gzip...
Publication details
Date: 11 May 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE 22nd International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines
Ivan Dokmanic and Ivan Tashev

Depth imaging is commonly based on light. For example, LIDAR and Kinect use infrared light, while stereo cameras use visible light. These systems require hardware operating at high sampling frequencies, precise calibration, and they dissipate significant power. In this paper, we investigate the potential of ultrasound for image and depth acquisition, with applications to human-computer interaction and skeletal tracking in mind. We use a loudspeaker array and a microphone array to sense the scene. We...

Publication details
Date: 9 May 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
Taku Hachisu and Masaaki Fukumoto

We present VacuumTouch, a novel haptic interface architecture for touch screens that provides attractive force feedback to the user’s finger. VacuumTouch consists of an air pump and solenoid air valves that connect to the surface of the touch screen and suck the air above the surface where the user’s finger makes contact. VacuumTouch does not require the user to hold or attach additional devices to provide the attractive force, which allows for easy interaction with the surface. This paper introduces...

Publication details
Date: 26 April 2014
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM
Ionut Constandache, Sharad Agarwal, Ivan Tashev, and Romit Roy Choudhury

A variety of techniques have been used by prior work on the problem of smartphone location. In this paper, we propose a novel approach using sound source localization (SSL) with microphone arrays to determine where in a room a smartphone is located. In our system called Daredevil, smartphones emit sound at particular times and frequencies, which are received by microphone arrays. Using SSL that we modified for our purposes, we can calculate the angle between the center of each microphone array and the...

Publication details
Date: 15 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Review (MC2R)
Nan-Wei Gong, Jürgen Steimle, Simon Olberding, Steve Hodges, Nicolas Gillian, Yoshihiro Kawahara, and Joseph A. Paradiso

We present a multimodal on-surface and near-surface sensing technique for planar, curved and flexible surfaces. Our technique leverages temporal multiplexing of signals coming from a universal interdigitated electrode design, which is printed as a single conductive layer on a flexible substrate. It supports sensing of touch and proximity input, and moreover is capable of capturing several levels of pressure and flexing. We leverage recent developments in conductive inkjet printing as a way to prototype...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2014
Jonathan Hook, Thomas Nappey, Steve Hodges, Peter Wright, and Patrick Olivier
Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2014 Adjunct Proceedings
Steve Hodges, Nicolas Villar, Nicholas Chen, Tushar Chugh, Jie Qi, Diana Nowacka, and Yoshihiro Kawahara

We present a novel approach to the construction of elec-tronic prototypes which can support a variety of interactive devices. Our technique, which we call circuit stickers, in-volves adhering physical interface elements such as LEDs, sounders, buttons and sensors onto a cheap and easy-to-make substrate which provides electrical connectivity. This assembly may include control electronics and a battery for standalone operation, or it can be interfaced to a microcon-troller or PC. In this paper we...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2014
eric chung, andreas nowatzyk, tom rodeheffer, chuck thacker, and fang yu

In this paper, we present AN3—a low-cost, circuit-switched datacenter network. AN3 replaces expensive IP switches with custom hardware that supports circuit-based switching efficiently and with low cost. AN3 is enabled by a new speculative transmission protocol that (1) enables rapid multiplexing of links to efficiently support many flows in a datacenter-scale computer, and (2) establishes setup and teardown of circuits within tens of microseconds—well below the TCP handshake delay. In simulations, AN3...

Publication details
Date: 12 March 2014
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2014-35
Todd Mytkowicz, Madanlal Musuvathi, and Wolfram Schulte

A finite-state machine (FSM) is an important abstraction for solving several problems, including regular-expression matching, tokenizing text, and Huffman decoding. FSM computations typically involve data-dependent iterations with unpredictable memory-access patterns making them difficult to parallelize. This paper describes a parallel algorithm for FSMs that breaks dependences across iterations by efficiently enumerating transitions from all possible states on each input symbol. This allows the...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS)
James Bornholt, Todd Mytkowicz, and Kathryn S. McKinley

Emerging applications increasingly use estimates such as sensor data (GPS), probabilistic models, machine learning, big data, and human data. Unfortunately, representing this uncertain data with discrete types (floats, integers, and booleans) encourages developers to pretend it is not probabilistic, which causes three types of uncertainty bugs. (1) Using estimates as facts ignores random error in estimates. (2) Computation compounds that error. (3) Boolean questions on probabilistic data induce false...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS)
Xin Liu and Jiawei Gu

We are proposing a new system to enhance the tactile experience of digital painting hat includes multi-strokes for different painting needs. In this paper, we describe how FlexStroke is used as a Chinese brush, an oil brush, and a crayon by changing the jamming tip. This tip has different levels of stiffness based on its jamming structure. Visual simulations on PixelSense[3] jointly enhance the intuitive painting process with realistic display results.

Publication details
Date: 16 February 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Ivan Tashev

We propose a method for the synthesis of the phases of Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) using a sparse representation of anthropometric features. Our approach treats the HRTF synthesis problem as finding a sparse representation of the subjects anthropometric features w.r.t. the anthropometric features in the training set. The fundamental assumption is that the group delay of a given HRTF set can be described by the same sparse combination as the anthropometric data. Thus, we learn a sparse vector...

Publication details
Date: 13 February 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: University of California - San Diego
Emma Woodberry, Georgina Browne, Steve Hodges, Peter Watson, Narinder Kapur, and Ken Woodberry

Despite the severe impairment of recent episodic memories in Alzheimer’s disease, there have been few attempts to rehabilitate these deficits. In a follow-up study to previously published papers, we used a novel external memory aid to promote recall of episodic memories in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). SenseCam, a small wearable camera, was worn to record significant events in the lives of six AD patients. Every two days for two weeks, each patient’s memory for the an event was assessed,...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Saeed Maleki, Madanlal Musuvathi, and Todd Mytkowicz

This paper proposes an efficient parallel algorithm for an important class of dynamic programming problems that includes Viterbi, Needleman-Wunsch, Smith-Waterman, and Longest Common Subsequence. In dynamic programming, the subproblems that do not depend on each other, and thus can be computed in parallel, form stages or wavefronts. The algorithm presented in this paper provides additional parallelism allowing multiple stages to be computed in parallel despite dependences among them. The correctness and...

Publication details
Date: 1 February 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM SIGPLAN Symposium on Principles and Practice of Parallel Programming (PPoPP)
Aiden Doherty, Wilby Williamson, Melvyn Hillsdon, Steve Hodges, Charlie Foster, and Paul Kelly

BACKGROUND: The growing global burden of noncommunicable diseases makes it important to monitor and influence a range of health-related behaviours such as diet and physical activity Wearable cameras appear to record and reveal many of these behaviours in more accessible ways. However, having determined opportunities for improvement, most health-related interventions fail to result in lasting changes.

AIM: To assess the use of wearable cameras as part of a behaviour change strategy and consider...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2013
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM
Adam Paetznick and Krysta M. Svore

We present a non-deterministic circuit decomposition technique for approximating an arbitrary single-qubit unitary to within distance epsilon that requires significantly fewer non-Clifford gates than deterministic decomposition techniques. We develop "Repeat-Until-Success" (RUS) circuits and characterize unitaries that can be exactly represented as an RUS circuit. Our RUS circuits operate by conditioning on a given measurement outcome and using only a small number of non-Clifford gates and ancilla...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2013
Type: Article
Guillaume Duclos-Cianci and Krysta M. Svore

An important task required to build a scalable, fault-tolerant quantum computer is to efficiently represent an arbitrary single-qubit rotation by fault-tolerant quantum operations. Traditionally, the method for decomposing a single-qubit unitary into a discrete set of gates is Solovay-Kitaev decomposition, which in practice produces a sequence of depth O(logc(1/ε)), where c 3.97 is the state-of-the-art. The proven lower bound is c=1, however an efficient algorithm that saturates this...

Publication details
Date: 17 October 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: American Physical Society
Number: 042325
Ivan Tashev

Kinect is a device for human-machine interaction, which adds two more input modalities to the palette of the user interface designer: gestures and speech. Kinect is transforming how people interact with computers, kiosks, and other motion-controlled devices from fun applications like playing a virtual violin, to applications in health care and physical therapy, retail, education, and training. The Kinect for Windows SDK and toolkit contain drivers, tools, APIs, device interfaces, and code samples to...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2013
Type: Article
Publisher: IEEE
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