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Algorithms and theory47205 (342)
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Ahmed Kharrufa, James Nicholson, Paul Dunphy, Steve Hodges, Pam Briggs, and Patrick Olivier

In addition to their popularity as personal devices, tablets, are becoming increasingly prevalent in work and public settings. In many of these newly-established application domains a supervisor user – such as the teacher in a classroom – oversees the function of one or more devices. Access to supervisory functions is typically controlled through the use of a passcode, but experience shows that keeping this passcode secret can be problematic. In this paper we introduce SwipeID, a method of identifying...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IFIP
Kalin Ovtcharov, Olatunji Ruwase, Joo-Young Kim, Jeremy Fowers, Karin Strauss, and Eric Chung
Publication details
Date: 1 August 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: HOTCHIPS
Gordon Bell

Ideally, if enough were known about all the variables affecting heart rate, the time of the next beat could be known. Of course this means knowing: the environment e.g. temperature, air density, wind, air quality; activity level e.g. sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, running, biking, rowing; diet and digestive loads including stimulants; physical health including allergies, sicknesses, and chronic ailments e.g. asthma, bronchitis; and all the kinds and levels of stress. I’ve observed all of these...

Publication details
Date: 17 June 2015
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2015-53
Kyungmin Lee, David Chu, Eduardo Cuervo, Johannes Kopf, Yury Degtyarev, Sergey Grizan, Alec Wolman, and Jason Flinn

Gaming on phones, tablets and laptops is very popular. Cloud gaming -- where remote servers perform game execution and rendering on behalf of thin clients that simply send input and display output frames -- promises any device the ability to play any game any time. Unfortunately, the reality is that wide-area network latencies are often prohibitive; cellular, Wi-Fi and even wired residential end host round trip times (RTTs) can exceed 100ms, a threshold above which many gamers tend to deem...

Publication details
Date: 3 June 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Vasileios Karakostas, Jayneel Gandhi, Furkan Ayar, Adrián Cristal, Mark D. Hill, Kathryn S. McKinley, Mario Nemirovsky, Michael M. Swift, and Osman Ünsal

Page-based virtual memory improves programmer productivity, security, and memory utilization, but incurs performance overheads due to costly page table walks after TLB misses. This overhead can reach 50% for modern workloads that access increasingly vast memory with stagnating TLB sizes.

To reduce the overhead of virtual memory, this paper proposes Redundant Memory Mappings (RMM), which leverage ranges of pages and provides an efficient, alternative representation...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA)
Xi Yang, Stephen M. Blackburn, and Kathryn S. McKinley

Developers and architects spend a lot of time trying to understand and eliminate performance problems. Unfortunately, the root causes of many problems occur at a fine granularity that existing continuous profiling and direct measurement approaches cannot observe. This paper presents the design and implementation of SHIM, a continuous profiler that samples at resolutions as fine as 15 cycles; three to five orders of magnitude finer than current continuous profilers. SHIM’s...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA)
Zhaoyuan Ma, Darren Edge, Leah Findlater, and Hong Tan

The present study used a flat keyboard without moving keys and enabled with haptic keyclick feedback to examine the effect of haptic keyclick feedback on touch typing performance. We investigated, with well-controlled stimuli and a within-participant design, how haptic keyclick feedback might improve typing performance in terms of typing speed, typing efficiency and typing errors. Of the three kinds of haptic feedback we tested, all increased typing speed and decreased typing errors compared to a...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Jeremy Fowers, Joo-Young Kim, Doug Burger, and Scott Hauck

Data compression techniques have been the subject of intense study over the past several decades due to exponential increases in the quantity of data stored and transmitted by computer systems. Compression algorithms are traditionally forced to make tradeoffs between throughput and compression quality (the ratio of original file size to compressed file size). FPGAs represent a compelling substrate for streaming applications such as data compression thanks to their capacity for deep pipelines and custom...

Publication details
Date: 4 May 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Masa Ogata and Masaaki Fukumoto

FluxPaper is a new paper-based medium that enables physical movement and dynamic interaction between a high-power magnetized paper and a programmable magnetic field. FluxPaper has a very thin patterned magnetic layer (0.1 mm) pasted behind the paper. A thin but strong neodymium-based magnet realizes fast, powerful, and precise physical actions while retaining the original characteristics of the paper that is widely used in our daily lives. Owing to an effective magnetic pattern and a computer-controlled...

Publication details
Date: 20 April 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Koya Narumi, Xinyang Shi, Steve Hodges, Yoshihiro Kawahara, Shinya Shimizu, and Tohru Asami

Recent advances in materials science have resulted in a range of commercially viable and easy-to-use conductive inks which many practitioners are now using for the rapid design and realization of interactive circuits. Despite the ease with which hobbyists, educators and researchers can construct working circuits, a major limitation of prototyping with conductive ink is the difficulty of altering a design which has already been printed, and in particular removing areas of ink. In this paper we present...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Lijun Zhu and Dinei Florencio

Parametric speakers produce sound by emitting ultrasound, and using the small nonlinearity in air to demodulate it back to audible sound. The use of ultrasound allows for producing very narrow audio beams, which finds application in a number of military and consumer scenarios. However, designing better parametric speakers has been hard: closed-form solution of the nonlinear wave equation for generic geometries is nearly impossible, and the only existing solution was derived for the simple case of a...

Publication details
Date: 1 April 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Nathan Wiebe, Ashish Kapoor, and Krysta M. Svore

We present several quantum algorithms for performing nearest-neighbor learning. At the core of our algorithms are fast and coherent quantum methods for computing distance metrics such as the inner product and Euclidean distance. We prove upper bounds on the number of queries to the input data required to compute these metrics. In the worst case, our quantum algorithms lead to polynomial reductions in query complexity relative to the corresponding classical algorithm. In certain cases, we show...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Rinton Press
Number: 3&4
E. Haque, Yong hun Eom, Yuxiong He, Sameh Elnikety, Ricardo Bianchini, and Kathryn S. McKinley

Interactive services, such as Web search, recommendations, games, and finance, must respond quickly to satisfy customers. Achieving this goal requires optimizing tail (e.g., 99th+ percentile) latency. Although every server is multicore, parallelizing individual requests to reduce tail latency is challenging because (1) service demand is unknown when requests arrive; (2) blindly parallelizing all requests quickly oversubscribes hardware resources; and (3) parallelizing the numerous short...

Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS)
Dimitris Papanikolaou, A.J. Brush, and Asta Roseway

Today, it is not uncommon to find ourselves remote from those we care about. Despite the impact of mobile and social technologies on connectedness, recent studies suggest that it could be these very technologies that exacerbate a sense of loneliness. In attempt to help people feel more connected, we designed and created BodyPods, a remotely paired set of communicating chairs that facilitate a sense of presence by leveraging implicit actions such as sitting to communicate that someone you care about...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Gordon Bell

The “ideal supercomputer” has an infinitely fast clock, executes a single instruction stream program operating on data stored in an infinitely large, and fast single-memory. Backus established the von Neumann programming model with FORTRAN. Supercomputers have evolved in steps: increasing processor speed, processing vectors, adding processors for a program held in a single memory monocomputer; and interconnecting multiple computers over which a distributed program runs in parallel. Thus, supercomputing...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-2
Yunxin Liu, Zhen Qin, and Chunshui Zhao

Smartphone charging imposes a big burden to users because they often have to recharge their smartphones every day or even multiple times per day. In this paper we try to answer the following question: can smartphones get automatically charged without requiring explicit effort from users? To this end, we propose a new approach, called AutoCharge, to explore the feasibility of automatic smartphone charging. The AutoCharge approach automatically locates a smartphone on a desk and charges it in a...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Technical report
Number: MSR-TR-2015-5
Sang-won Leigh, Asta Roseway, and Ann Paradiso

Remnance of Form is an interactive installation that explores the dynamic tension between an object and its Shadow. By fusing light, projection, and motion technologies, the shadow can now detach itself from its former role. This creates a new narrative that challenges our perception of reality, what’s real and what’s not.


Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Adam Paetznick and Krysta M. Svore

We present a non-deterministic circuit decomposition technique for approximating an arbitrary single-qubit unitary to within distance epsilon that requires significantly fewer non-Clifford gates than deterministic decomposition techniques. We develop "Repeat-Until-Success" (RUS) circuits and characterize unitaries that can be exactly represented as an RUS circuit. Our RUS circuits operate by conditioning on a given measurement outcome and using only a small number of non-Clifford gates and ancilla...

Publication details
Date: 1 November 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Rinton Press
Number: 15&16
Xiang Chen, Kent W. Nixon, Hucheng Zhou, Yunxin Liu, and Yiran Chen

Despite that OLED screen has been increasingly adopted in smartphones to save power; screen is still one of the most energy-consuming modules in smartphones. Techniques such as local dimming are proposed to further reduce the power consumption of OLED screen, but it is hard to decide which part of the screen could be dimmed, and it often results in compromised user experience. Intuitively, when a user interacts with a smartphone via the touch screen, the screen areas are covered by the user’s fingers...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: HotPower'14
Kent W. Nixon, Xiang Chen, Hucheng Zhou, Yunxin Liu, and Yiran Chen

The emerging industry trend of ever-increasing display density on mobile devices has dramatically increased workload placed on a mobile GPU’s . Because mobile GPU power consumption increases almost linearly with workload, increasing the display density directly decreases battery life of a device. While this tradeoff is acceptable if user experience is improved, display densities beyond that which the human eye can perceive would result in decreased device battery life for no perceptible gain. Further,...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: HotPower'14
Sarah Mennicken, A. J. Bernheim Brush, Asta Roseway, and James Scott

People respond emotionally to other people, animals, or even objects like furniture. While current furniture is static in appearance, embedded electronics can enable furniture to change its appearance. A couch could show excitement during a party or anger when a pet scratches it. But would emotional furniture delight or annoy people? To explore the potential for emotional furniture, we built EmotoCouch. Through colored light, visual patterns, and haptic feedback, EmotoCouch expresses six emotional...

Publication details
Date: 15 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Mohammed Shoaib, Jie Liu, and Matthai Phillipose

High functional complexity is leading us towards new architectures for sensing systems. Multi-tiered design is one among the many emerging alternatives. Such architectures bring new opportunities for effective system-level power management. For instance, varying one/more tier-level parameters can provide substantial end-to-end energy scaling. In this paper, we review an existing approach that shows how one such parameter, namely data compression, can help us scale energy at the cost of algorithmic...

Publication details
Date: 14 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: IEEE – Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Chloe Brown, Christos Efstratiou, Ilias Leontiadis, Daniele Quercia, Cecilia Mascolo, James Scott, and Peter Key

The layouts of the buildings we live in shape our everyday lives. In office environments, building spaces affect employees’ communication, which is crucial for productivity and innovation. However, accurate measurement of how spatial layouts affect interactions is a major challenge and traditional techniques may not give an objective view.

We measure the impact of building spaces on social interactions using wearable sensing devices. We study a single organization that moved between two...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Sarah Mennicken, A. J. Bernheim Brush, Asta Roseway, and James Scott

Furniture is the building block of the spaces we inhabit. Its design and its functions shape how we use spaces, as individuals and as groups. While being an integral part of our lives, furniture is unaware of what happens around it. But what if furniture could change its appearance? What situations should it respond to? How might it communicate its state to those around it? Can we use emotional expression for such communication? To find and explore roles for interactive furniture in domestic spaces, we...

Publication details
Date: 13 September 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACM – Association for Computing Machinery
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: ACM
Number: 5
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