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Algorithms and theory47205 (329)
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Publication details
Date: 1 August 2015
Type: Proceedings
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Young-Bum Kim, Minwoo Jeong, Karl Stratos, and Ruhi Sarikaya

In this paper, we apply a weakly-supervised learning approach for slot tagging using conditional random fields by exploiting web search click logs. We extend the constrained lattice training of Tackstrom et al. (2013) to ¨ non-linear conditional random fields in which latent variables mediate between observations and labels. When combined with a novel initialization scheme that leverages unlabeled data, we show that our method gives significant improvement over strong supervised and weakly-supervised...

Publication details
Date: 1 June 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Publisher: ACL – Association for Computational Linguistics
Piero Visconti, Michel Bakkenes, Daniele Baisero, Thomas Brooks, Stuart HM Butchart, Lucas Joppa, Rob Alkemade, Moreno Di Marco, Luca Santini, Michael Hoffmann, and others
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Number: 3
Sonia Kéfi, Eric L Berlow, Evie A Wieters, Lucas N Joppa, Spencer A Wood, Ulrich Brose, and Sergio A Navarrete
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Ecological Society of America
Number: 1
Sebastián Martinuzzi, Volker C Radeloff, Lucas N Joppa, Christopher M Hamilton, David P Helmers, Andrew J Plantinga, and David J Lewis
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Elsevier
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Article
Íñigo Goiri, Thu D. Nguyen, and Ricardo Bianchini
Publication details
Date: 1 March 2015
Type: Inproceeding
Sadia E Ahmed, Greg McInerny, Kenton O'Hara, Richard Harper, Lara Salido, Stephen Emmott, and Lucas N Joppa
Publication details
Date: 1 February 2015
Type: Article
Stuart HM Butchart, Martin Clarke, Robert J Smith, Rachel E Sykes, Jörn PW Scharlemann, Mike Harfoot, Graeme M Buchanan, Ariadne Angulo, Andrew Balmford, Bastian Bertzky, others, and lucas joppa
Publication details
Date: 1 February 2015
Type: Article
sadia ahmed, Greg McInerny, Kenton O'Hara, Richard Harper, Lara Salido, Stephen Emmott, and Lucas Joppa

Aim: Software use is ubiquitous in the species distribution modelling (SDM) domain; nearly every scientist working on SDM either uses or develops specialist SDM software; however, little is formally known about the prevalence or preference of one software over another. We seek to provide, for the first time, a ‘snapshot’ of SDM users, the methods they use and the questions they answer.

Location: Global.

Methods: We conducted a survey of over 300 SDM scientists to capture a snapshot of...

Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: Wiley
Camille Guilbaud, Neil Dalchau, Drew Purves, and Lindsay Turnbull
  • Flowering time in annual plants has large fitness consequences and has been the focus of theoretical and empirical study. Previous theory has concluded that flowering time has evolved over evolutionary time to maximize fitness over a particular season length.
  • We introduce a new model where flowering is cued by a growth-rate rule (peak nitrogen (N)). Flowering is therefore sensitive to physiological parameters and to current environmental conditions, including N availability and the...
Publication details
Date: 1 January 2015
Type: Article
Publisher: New Phytologist Trust
Number: 2
Silvia Caldararu, Drew W. Purves, and Matthew J. Smith

Simple mechanistic models of vegetation processes are essential both to our understanding of plant behaviour and to our ability to predict future changes in vegetation. One concept that can take us closer to such models is that of plant optimality, the hypothesis that plants aim to achieve an optimal state. Conceptually, plant optimality can be either structural or functional optimality. A structural constraint would mean that plants aim to achieve a certain structural characteristic such as an...

Publication details
Date: 15 December 2014
Type: Proceedings
Katherine E Todd-Brown, Yiqi Luo, James Tremper Randerson, Stephen D. Allison, and Matthew J. Smith

Soil carbon stocks have the potential to be a strong source or sink for carbon dioxide over the next century, playing a critical role in climate change. These stocks are the result of small differences between much larger primary carbon fluxes: gross primary production, litter fall, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration. There was little agreement on predicted soil carbon stocks between Earth system models (ESMs) in the most recent Climate Model Intercomparison Project. Predicted...

Publication details
Date: 15 December 2014
Type: Proceedings
Matthew J. Smith, Stephen Emmott, Drew W. Purves, Lucas N. Joppa, and Vassily Lyutsarev

In scientific research and development, emphasis is placed on research over development. A significant cost is that the two-way interaction between scientific insights and societal needs does not function effectively to lead to impacts in the wider world. We simply must embrace new software and hardware approaches if we are to provide timely predictive information to address global problems, support businesses and inform governments and citizens. The Microsoft Research Computational Science Lab has been...

Publication details
Date: 15 December 2014
Type: Proceedings
Oleksandra Hararuk and Matthew J. Smith

Soil is the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C), storing 1395-2293 Pg C. Under changing climate a large portion of soil C could potentially transfer back to the atmosphere as CO₂, pushing the earth system into a positive feedback loop between increasing soil CO₂ emissions and rising temperatures. We rely on models to estimate soil responses to climate change; however recent global carbon cycle model intercomparisons have shown poor model performance in capturing C cycle processes in the soil. To gain...

Publication details
Date: 15 December 2014
Type: Proceedings
Tom Crick, Benjamin A. Hall, Samin Ishtiaq, and Kenji Takeda

The reproduction and replication of reported scientific results is a hot topic within the academic community. The retraction of numerous studies from a wide range of disciplines, from climate science to bioscience, has drawn the focus of many commentators, but there exists a wider socio-cultural problem that pervades the scientific community. Sharing data and models often requires extra effort, and this is currently seen as a significant overhead that may not be worth the time investment....

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2014
Type: Inproceeding
Oleksandra Hararuk, Matthew J. Smith, and Yiqi Luo

Long-term carbon (C) cycle feedbacks to climate depend on the future dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC). Current models show low predictive accuracy at simulating contemporary SOC pools, which can be improved through parameter estimation. However major uncertainty remains in global soil responses to climate change, particularly uncertainty in how the activity of soil microbial communities will respond. To date, the role of microbes in SOC dynamics has been implicitly described by decay rate constants...

Publication details
Date: 1 December 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Wiley
Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Article
Gian Marco Palamara, Dylan Z. Childs, Christopher F. Clements, Owen L. Petchey, Marco Plebani, and Matthew J. Smith
  1. Understanding and quantifying the temperature dependence of population parameters, such as intrinsic growth rate and carrying capacity, is critical for predicting the ecological responses to environmental change. Many studies provide empirical estimates of such temperature dependencies, but a thorough investigation of the methods used to infer them has not been performed yet.
  2. We created artificial population time series using a stochastic logistic model parameterized with the Arrhenius...
Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Article
Yiqi Luo, Trevor F. Keenan, and Matthew J. Smith

Terrestrial ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and in the regulation of climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions increased from 2.4 Pg C in 1960 to 8.7 Pg C per year in 2008 while terrestrial ecosystems absorbed nearly 30% during that period (Le Quere et al., 2009). If that absorption capacity were to change, in either direction, it would have a large impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations, resulting in a strong feedback effect on climate...

Publication details
Date: 1 October 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Wiley
Attila Csikász-Nagy and Neil Dalchau

Biological clocks regulate the proper periodicity of several processes at the cellular and organismal level. The cell cycle and circadian rhythm are the best characterized among these but several other biological clocks function in cells at widely variable periodicity. The underlying molecular networks are controlled by delayed negative feedbacks, but the role of positive feedbacks and substrate-depletion has been also proposed to play crucial roles in the regulation of these processes. Here we will...

Publication details
Date: 8 September 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-134
Martin Abadi, Philippa Gardner, Andrew D. Gordon, and Radu Mardare

Luca Cardelli has made exceptional contributions to the field of programming languages and beyond. Throughout his career, he has re-invented himself every decade or so, while continuing to make true innovations. His achievements span many areas: software; language design, including experimental languages; programming language foundations; and the interaction of programming languages and biology. These achievements form the basis of his lasting scientific leadership and his wide impact. A scientific...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Technical report
Publisher: Microsoft Research
Number: MSR-TR-2014-104
Christoph Lippert, Jing Xiang, Danilo Horta, Christian Widmer, Carl Kadie, David Heckerman, and Jennifer Listgarten
Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Oxford University Press
sadia, Lees, A. C., Moura, N. G., Gardner, T. A., Barlow, J., Ferreira, J., Ewers, and R. M.

Road building can lead to significant deleterious impacts on biodiversity,

varying from direct road-kill mortality and direct habitat loss associated with

road construction, to more subtle indirect impacts from edge effects and

fragmentation. However, little work has been done to evaluate the specific

effects of road networks and biodiversity loss beyond the more generalized

effects of habitat loss. Here, we compared forest bird species richness

and composition...

Publication details
Date: 1 September 2014
Type: Article
Publisher: Proc Roy Soc B
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